Arthritis Nodes: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment


Arthritis is a term that refers to joint inflammation (pain, swelling, and stiffness). It is generally used to describe any disorder that affects the joints, tissues around the joints, as well as other connective tissues. Arthritis can affect either one joint or several joints at the same time, hence there are different types of arthritis, more than 100 of them.

Surveys have estimated that 58.5 million adults have one type of arthritis joint condition. It was also indicated that it affects adults 65 years and above. Although it is more common among women and the elderly, arthritis can affect everyone, children and young people alike. (1)

Types Of Arthritis

The common types of arthritis include:

  1. 1. Osteoarthritis:

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is reputed to have the most frequent number of visits to the hospital. Also known as Arthrosis or Wear-and-tear arthritis, it is a degenerative disease that affects the whole joint. It begins with the roughening and breaking down of the cartilage within a joint (commonly the knees, hands, hips, and spine).

In an attempt to make up for the wear and loss of cartilage, the body causes unwanted little bits of bone, called osteophytes to grow at the ends of the bone in the joint. Over time, the synovial fluid increases and may stretch the joint capsule, leading to difficult and painful movement. (2)

Arthritis joint damage incurred previously, such as joint inflammation or fracture can also cause osteoarthritis. Swelling of the joint is an attribute of joint inflammation, which occurs as a result of the thickening of the synovium. Studies suggest that, when the degraded cartilage pieces fall into the synovium, the synovial cells view them as foreign bodies and respond by releasing inflammatory mediators. (3)

Signs and symptoms of Osteoarthritis

  • – Swelling and tenderness: this is a result of inflammation.
  • – Pain: Intensity varies from one person to the other and increases with time if management is not commenced.
  • – Arthritis nodes are bony hard lumps at the joints of your finger. When arthritis nodes develop at the joint closest to your finger, they are referred to as Heberden’s nodes. When they develop at joints close to your hand, they are called Bouchard’s nodes.
  • – Stiffness
  • – Reduced movement
  • – Crunching sounds, like your bone is rubbing against each other.

What Age Is One Likely To Develop Osteoarthritis

About 250 million people in the world are affected by osteoarthritis, of which the majority are the elderly. Osteoarthritis is more likely to develop in women after the age of 45, while in men, it can develop before age 45. Due to bodily changes that occur as one age, such as weight gain, inability to heal faster and efficiently, and muscle weakness, it is common to develop osteoarthritis in your late forties. (4)

To differentiate arthritis versus arthrosis, the doctor can run physical tests to check for tenderness, swelling, and redness in the joints. He could also run some imaging tests such as X-rays and MRIs to view detailed images of the bones and soft tissues and determine cartilage loss. Although blood tests cant be used to diagnose osteoarthritis, the blood can be analyzed to rule out other likely causes of joint pain.

Management of Osteoarthritis

Several modalities have been postulated to help with the management of osteoarthritis. Some of them are:

  • – Hot and cold therapies
  • – Regular physical activity
  • – Over-the-counter medication
  • – Assistive devices like osteoarthritis unloader knee brace.

Osteoarthritis patients should avoid foods such as red meat and fried foods, sugars, dairy products, refined carbohydrates, alcohol, and tobacco. They irritate the joint tissue and can increase inflammation. Studies carried out by the American Academy of Orthopedic surgeons have identified osteoarthritis as the primary reason for discharge from active military service. Hence, veterans may receive a 10% arthritis VA rating if symptoms appear within one year of discharge.

  1. 2. Rheumatoid Arthritis: 

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease majorly characterized by inflammation. Naturally, our immune system causes inflammation as a defense mechanism against some bacteria, viruses, or other injuries like burns. However, in rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system becomes overactive, attacks healthy cells of the joints, and triggers inflammation. This results in an inflated lining of the joint and damaged joint tissue. Asides from worsening the pain in the arthritis joint, continuous inflammation can lead to permanent damage of the joints, lack of balance, deformity, and issues in other organs of the body. The common joints affected are the hands, wrists, and knees. At the onset of rheumatoid arthritis, one can experience elbow pain caused by uncontrolled inflammation in the elbow joint. Veterans may receive a 100% arthritis VA rating if they experience total incapacitation of the arthritis joint during constitutional manifestations.

Signs and symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis

  • – Swelling and tenderness in the joints
  • – Stiffness in the joints in the mornings
  • – Pain or ache in the joints
  • – Weakness
  • – Fatigue
  • – A general feeling of being unwell
  • – Fever

Rheumatoid Arthritis Versus Lupus

Oftentimes, some patients develop rheumatoid arthritis with lupus, or mistake the former for the latter. While they are both autoimmune diseases and share similar symptoms such as joint swelling, fatigue, and fever, there are several distinguishing features.

  • – Where Rheumatoid arthritis affects majorly the joints, lupus affects majorly the internal organs and skin, in addition to the joints.
  • – RA can cause deformities of the joints while lupus doesn’t.
  • – RA doesn’t lead to life-threatening conditions like seizure and kidney damage while lupus can cause complications.
  • – Pain caused by RA worsens in the morning and gets better during the day while pain caused by lupus is often consistent. (5)

Rheumatoid Arthritis vs Gout

Gout is another condition that shares a few similarities with Rheumatoid Arthritis which can lead to mistaking one for the other. When comparing arthritis vs gout, there are a few notable differences.

  • – Gout is not an autoimmune disease whereas RA is an autoimmune disease.
  • – Gout is caused by the presence of high levels of uric acid in the body while RA is caused by a default in the body’s immune system.
  • – Gout primarily affects only one joint (the big toe) whereas RA affects majorly the knee, hand, and wrist joints.

What is Rheumatoid factor?

Rheumatoid arthritis can be diagnosed by running a rheumatoid factor test with your blood sample. It involves looking for rheumatoid factor (antibodies made by the immune system) in the sample. Sometimes, these antibodies accidentally attack healthy cells. High levels of rheumatoid factor can indicate an autoimmune disorder like rheumatoid arthritis, or certain types of cancer. This is used with other tests to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis. (6)

Also, an imaging test can be conducted to diagnose and monitor the progression of rheumatoid arthritis. An arthritis Xray hand scan will show ulnar deviation of the metacarpophalangeal joints, subchondral cysts, ulnar translocation, swan neck deformities, scapholunate dissociation, hitchhiker’s thumb deformity, ankylosis and arthritis bumps on fingers. (7)

  1. 3. Spondyloarthritis

This refers to some conditions that affect the joints of the spine and sacroiliac area, causing pain and swelling. It involves inflammation of the joints, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues. It is a type of arthritis that results from degeneration of the joints and discs of the spine.

It is further divided into the following types:

  • – Ankylosing Spondylitis

Refers to a type of spondyloarthritis that primarily affects the spine. It is a chronic joint inflammation in which there is a fusion of the spinal vertebrae, leading to stiffness and limited movement in the spine. The term “ankylosis means stiffness of the joint as a result of injury. This is caused by the presence of extra mineral calcium in the spine, formed when the body responds to inflammation. New bits of bones grow in the spine, resulting in painful and stiff joints. Arthritis upper back pain can also result from this.Ankylosing Spondylitis can start during the teenage years, but is more common in early adulthood, from 20 to 30 years.

Although the exact cause of AS is not known, it has been discovered that 90% of those who develop AS carry the human leukocyte antigen B27 gene (HLA-B27). Having this gene does not mean that the carrier will develop the condition. It is estimated that 8 out of every 100 carriers do not have ankylosing spondylitis. (8)

Symptoms include:

  • – Arthritis upper back pain.
  • – Stiffness
  • – Swelling accompanied by pain in other areas of the body like the upper back.
  • – Fatigue
  • – Juvenile spondyloarthritis

This refers to arthritis in children and the most common form is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. It is also termed as arthritis young age chronic condition. Any inflammatory arthritis diagnosed on or before 16 years of age is termed Juvenile spondyloarthritis. It involves inflammation of the regions where tendons and ligaments connect to the bone. The leg joints are commonly affected. This arthritis young age condition must be diagnosed early in people to avoid permanent physical damage to the joints. Symptoms include:

  • – Pain and tenderness in the joints
  • – Bowel inflammation
  • – Fatigue
  • – Arthritis eyes inflammation
  • – Loss of appetite
  1. 4. Metabolic Spondylitis

Also known as gout, this is a condition that results from the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints. Usually, the body eliminates excess uric acid. However, when one eats too many foods like red meats, some seafood, alcohol, and dairy products, the body may produce more uric acid than it can get rid of. This causes buildup in the blood, causing hyperuricemia.

Accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints can lead to inflammation in the joints, resulting in the formation of lumps in the affected joints and surrounding tissues, especially in the big toe. Gout is accompanied by sudden and extreme bouts of pain.

  • – Psoriatic arthritis

This is an inflammatory condition that is chronic in nature. It affects the joints and regions where tendons and ligaments are connected to the bone. Here, the body’s immune system causes painful swelling and stiffness around the joints. This disease condition is associated with an inflammatory disease known as psoriasis, characterized by a red scaly skin rash. The rash can occur on several parts of the body such as the upper back, buttocks, knees, scalp, and elbow.

Psoriatic arthritis is common among adults 30 to 50 years of age. It is also common to have severe tiredness, otherwise known as fatigue.


Symptoms can develop after some years of having psoriasis. While some people experience arthritis before or without having psoriasis at all.

  • – Arthritis eyes pain and redness
  • – Pain and stiff joint (s)
  • – Dactylitis, which appears as swollen bumps in the fingers and toes.
  • – Fatigue
  • – Decreased flexibility


  • – Infectious Arthritis

This is a type of inflammatory arthritis that develops when there is a sudden and severe infection of the joint. It could be of bacterial, fungal, or viral origin. It is characterized by pain, fever, and swelling that often subsides on treatment with antibiotics and antifungals. There could also be tissue damage. Infectious arthritis affects both young people and adults and should be diagnosed on time to avoid spreading from one joint to another.

Another form of infectious arthritis is Reactive Arthritis. It occurs when an infection from another part of the body spreads to a joint, especially the knee. It could also be a result of the body’s response to an infection in some part of the body, leading to joint inflammation.

  • – Lupus

Commonly known as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), this is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory condition that affects and damages many parts of the body such as the joints, skin, brain, kidneys, etc. It is characterized by joint aches, chest pain, headaches, fatigue, fever, rash, and sensitivity to light. Lupus causes intense inflammation and damage to the tissue in the affected regions. It is very common to see patients arthritis with lupus at the same time.

Diagnosis of Arthritis

The general practitioner first performs a physical test to check for the presence of fluid in the joints and determine if it’s inflamed. He also employs the use of imaging scans like X-rays, MRIs, and CT scan to have a detailed view of your bones. This also helps to determine if the joint pain is caused by arthritis vs bursitis, temporary inflammation of the bursa (fluid-filled sacs that cushion the bones).

How is Arthritis Treated?

The main goal of arthritis treatment is to relieve symptoms, improve joint function and prevent further damage to the joints or surrounding tissues. When considering treatment options, factors such as age, symptoms, and severity should be considered. Also, the type of arthritis, like arthritis versus arthrosis is noted. It could be short-termed or long-termed and may involve more than one treatment type. They include:

  1. 1. Medications such as:
  2. A. Non-Steroidal AntiInflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): They help to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. Eg is Ibuprofen
  3. B. Steroids: They reduce pain and inflammation as well as slow joint damage. Eg is Prednisolone
  4. C. Disease Modifying Antirheumatoid Drugs (DMARDs): They slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis. Also, they prevent permanent damage to the joints. Eg Methotrexate.
  5. D. Counterirritants: They are topical drugs that help in pain relief when applied to the affected joint.
  6. E. Hydroxychloroquine: this has been found useful in the treatment of arthritis when pregnant.
  7. 2. Cold and Hot Therapy: This involves the application of a cold compress such as an ice pack, moist heat such as a warm bath, or dry heat such as a heating pad on the joint to reduce pain and inflammation. This is equally a good alternative for managing arthritis when pregnant and arthritis bumps on fingers.
  8. 3. Massage: Massaging the affected joints may help to stimulate blood flow and relieve pain.
  9. 4. Acupuncture: This involves the insertion of thin needles at strategic points in the body to relieve pain.
  10. 5. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): This makes use of a device to transmit mild electrical pulses to the nerve endings in the affected areas which stops the patient from feeling pain. (10)
  11. 6. Surgery: This is a long-term treatment and is dependent on the type of arthritis one has. It includes joint fusion, arthroscopy (joint repair), and total joint replacement. In a few cases, complications of arthritis arise and may involve conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome (a nerve condition where the median nerve that runs along the wrist is squeezed, pinched, or damaged). An arthritis Xray hand scan can be used to distinguish if it’s only arthritis or carpal tunnel.

Since arthritis is not curative, it is recommended that lifestyle measures are taken to improve quality of life. These measures regular exercises, use of assistive devices like osteoarthritis unloader knee brace to improve balance, weight loss if obese, and quality sleep.



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Joints Pain Symptoms



Joints pain is a common problem. They can come and go, but when they do, it can be tough to get rid of them. If you’re dealing with joint pain, You can take a few actions to lessen the suffering and enhance your quality of life. This article will look at some of the most typical joint pain symptoms and discuss possible treatments. From exercises to medications, we have you covered. So if you’ve been struggling with joint pains, read on for tips on how to get relief.

Joints pain: What are they, and what causes them?

Joint pain is the most common type and can affect any joint. Joint pain can be caused by a variety of conditions, including arthritis, a fracture, or a condition called bursitis. Other medical problems, such as an infection, can cause joint pain.

Joint pain at night is a symptom of many conditions, including arthritis and gout. Some of these conditions affect older people more than younger people. As a result, it’s critical to keep an eye out for joint pain at night to identify the source and seek treatment.

There are a variety of causes for joint pain, and it is often difficult to determine the cause. However, several common factors may contribute to joint pain. Some of the factors that may contribute to joint pain include:

  1. 1. Age: As people age, their joints become more prone to damage. This damage can lead to inflammation and pain in the joint.
  2. 2. Genetics: Some people are more likely than others to develop conditions like arthritis or bursitis due to their genes.
  3. 3. Injury: Joints can get injured in several ways, such as from falling stairs or getting hit by a ball. Injuries can also occur as a result of sports or recreational activities.
  4. 4. Stress: Chronic stress can increase your risk of arthritis or bursitis.
  5. 5. Obesity: Being overweight can increase your risk of developing arthritis or bursitis.
  6. 6. Poor posture: Poor posture can cause joint pain and inflammation.
  7. 7. Therapies: Certain treatments, such as physical therapy, can help to improve joint pain and function.

Types of Joint Pain

There are several different types of joint pain. Some joint pain is caused by an injury, while others may be due to various factors, including arthritis. Here are some common types of joint pain:

  1. 1. Arthritis: Arthritis is a condition that causes inflammation and damage to the joints. Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent kind of arthritis, affecting the joints’ cartilage. This type of arthritis can cause pain and stiffness in the joints and difficulty moving them.
  2. 2. Ibuprofen-Associated Joint Pain: Ibuprofen is a medication commonly used to treat pain and inflammation. Some people may get joint pain as a result of it. This joint pain is usually temporary and goes away after the ibuprofen wears off.
  3. 3. Sports Injuries: Sports injuries can cause many different types of joint pain. These injuries can occur when you hit your head or body on something during sports or when your muscles contract too hard while playing sports. Sports injuries can also occur when you exercise too much without warming up first or overuse your muscles.
  4. 4. Knee Pain: Knee pain is a common joint pain. Several different things, including arthritis, injuries, and overuse, can cause it. Knee pain can often be very painful and difficult to deal with.
  5. 5. Back Pain: Back pain is one of the most common types of joint pain. Several things, including arthritis, injuries, and overuse, can cause this pain. Back pain can often be very uncomfortable and difficult to deal with.

Joints Pain Symptoms

It really affects when you have joints pain all over body. Joint pain can be a sign of an underlying health condition, and it can be very difficult to diagnose. There are numerous types of joints in the body, and each can experience different pain. Here are some common joint pain symptoms :

  • – Inflammation: When the joint is damaged, inflamed tissue may form. This inflammation can cause intense pain and make movement difficult.
  • – Tenderness: If the joint is injured or has been treated improperly, the surrounding tissues may be tender to the touch. This means that even slight pressure on the joint causes intense pain.
  • – Swelling: Swelling may occur around the affected area because of fluid accumulation or inflammation. This swelling may make movement difficult or impossible.
  • – Numbness: If there is damage to nerve fibers close to the affected joint, numbness may occur in that area.
  • – Paresthesias: Paresthesias are sensations unrelated to the actual physical sensation. This can include tingling, warmth, and pain.

How to treat joint pain: Treatment options

Many treatment options for joint pain depend on the cause and severity. The most common treatments include rest, ice, ibuprofen, and over-the-counter medications.

If the joint pain is caused by arthritis or another condition that requires medication, your doctor may prescribe a specific medication. The most commonly used treatment for joint pain is NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications). NSAIDs work by reducing inflammation in the joints. Your doctor may also recommend other treatments, such as physical therapy or acupuncture.

Some milder forms of joint pain can be treated with self-care measures such as ice packs and rest. If the pain is severe or doesn’t respond to self-care measures, your doctor may prescribe medications or surgery to correct the problem.

Prevention of joint pain: Tips for keeping your joints healthy

If you’re experiencing joint pain, there are some things you can do to help keep your joints healthy. Here are some tips:

  1. 1. Exercise regularly. Exercise helps improve circulation, which is important for keeping your joints healthy. Plus, exercise can also reduce stress levels and promote relaxation, which can help relieve joint pain.
  2. 2. Eat a balanced diet. A good diet can help reduce inflammation and support overall joint health. In particular, make sure to include plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in your diet.
  3. 3. Get enough rest. Getting enough sleep is key for maintaining good joint health. Studies show that people who get enough sleep tend to have less inflammation in the body and fewer joint problems than those who don’t get enough sleep.
  4. 4. Try natural remedies if you’re struggling with joint pain. Some natural remedies like turmeric or ginger can help reduce inflammation and relieve joint pain symptoms. If these remedies don’t work, speak with your doctor about other options, like analgesics or corticosteroids.

Joints Pain in Legs

Joints pain in the legs can be difficult to manage. It can come and go, be localized or widespread, and cause discomfort. The great news is that there are treatments available for leg joint discomfort.

One way to deal with joints pain in your legs is to make sure you’re using good posture. If you slouch or hunch over, this puts pressure on your joints, making them hurt more often than they would otherwise. Make sure you sit up straight when you’re working at your desk, walking around town, or watching TV at home—this simple change can help reduce joints pain in legs and improve your overall health.

Another thing that may help prevent joints pain in legs is staying active and moving around as much as possible throughout the day. You don’t have to do intense workouts every day—take walks around town or the block every morning before breakfast! This will help keep your muscles strong while also keeping them limber enough, so they don’t start hurting when they get stiffer later on down the line.

Finally, if all else fails, try some natural remedies for joint pain, like ginger root tea or lemon balm tea! These are both great options because they work fast but

Joints Pain in Pregnancy

Joint pain is a common pregnancy symptom, with about 20% of pregnant women experiencing it.

Joint pain in Pregnancy can be caused by the hormone relaxin and other changes in your body’s chemistry. Relaxin is responsible for relaxing and stretching the ligaments in your pelvis, which makes room for your baby to grow. But relaxin also relaxes the joints in your knees, ankles, hips, and wrists, causing them to swell and become more mobile.

The most common symptom of joint Pain in Pregnancy is swollen ankles due to fluid retention. Other symptoms include:

  • – Knee pain from increased mobility and stiffness.
  • – Back pain from a change in posture.
  • – Hip pain from increased flexibility.
  • – Wrist pain from swelling.
  • – Headaches from tension headaches or migraines triggered by hormone fluctuations.

During pregnancy, hormones cause changes in your body that can affect your joints. These changes include:

* increased fluid volume (swelling)

* increased blood flow to your joints and muscles (swelling)

* loosening of the ligaments that hold your joints together (looseness)

* swelling in your hands and feet (edema)


For joint pain glucosamine is one of the most effective treatments for joint pain, so if you’re looking for ways to manage your joint pain, consider adding glucosamine supplements.

For joint pain, glucosamine is the way to go. No matter your age, glucosamine can help reduce inflammation and joint pain. It protects and builds up cartilage in your joints, which helps keep them healthy and pain-free.

Glucosamine also helps reduce the risk of osteoarthritis, a degenerative disease affecting the joints. This means that if you have been diagnosed with osteoarthritis or are at risk for developing it in the future, glucosamine could help you avoid surgery or other treatments necessary to continue living comfortably with your condition.

Other Ways to Reduce Joint pain

A simple exercise regimen is one of the easiest ways to reduce joint pain. Stretching exercises like yoga or Pilates can help relieve tension in your joints and muscles, allowing them to relax and loosen up. You should also consider adding strength training into your routine if you haven’t already—stronger muscles will be better equipped to support your joints as they move through their full range of motion.

Another way to ease your symptoms is by taking over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medication such as aspirin or ibuprofen. These medications are designed to reduce inflammation in your body, so it doesn’t have to fight off infection as much anymore; this can help with pain management over time as well!

Joint pain is a common problem. Various factors, including injury, arthritis, and degenerative joint disease, can cause it.

Joint pain can make it difficult to perform daily activities and cause you to feel like you’re aging faster than normal. Fortunately, many natural remedies can help alleviate joint pain. They are joint pain best medicine

Here is a list of the top 5 natural remedies for joint pain:

  1. 1. Olive leaf extract: Olive leaf extract is an antioxidant that may help reduce inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases such as lupus or Crohn’s disease by inhibiting interleukin 1beta production; however, it should not be used by people with a blood clotting disorder or those taking blood thinning medications due to its anticoagulant effects (like aspirin).
  2. 2. Devil’s Claw Root: Devil’s claw root inhibits prostaglandin synthesis while increasing prostacyclin’s production (which counterbalances prostaglandins’ effects). As a result, devil’s claw root may reduce inflammation and pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  3. 3. Ginger Root: Ginger root is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the production of prostaglandins, which are responsible for inflammation. As a result, ginger root may help reduce pain and stiffness associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  4. 4. Turmeric contains curcumin, an active ingredient that has been shown to inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which is involved in many inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis.
  5. 5. Grape Seed Extract: Grape seed extract is an antioxidant that helps protect the body from free radicals, which cause inflammation. As a result, grape seed extract may help reduce pain and stiffness associated with rheumatoid arthritis.


You must consult a physician if you’re experiencing joint pain all over your body. Various conditions, such as arthritis, bursitis, and gout, can cause joint pain. It can also be caused by injuries or sports injuries that affect the body’s joints.

You must see a doctor immediately if you notice joint pain in multiple body parts. The sooner you get treatment for this condition, the better your chance of reducing its severity and shortening its duration.

It is possible to treat joint pain with a mix of medicines and physical therapy because it typically has an underlying cause. If your pain is severe or doesn’t respond to treatment, you might need surgery. To receive the best care possible for you, be sure to discuss your symptoms with your doctor.

Do You Experience Elbow Pain Into Forearm


Elbow pain is usually not a very serious condition. But just like pain in any other part of the body, it can get very frustrating. You use your upper limbs for many movements that make up your daily activities. Most of these movements involve the elbow joint. As a result, pain in the elbow can make performing your daily activities a very difficult task.

Causes of Elbow Pain

The most common cause of elbow pain is overuse (1). If you regularly partake in sports, jobs, hobbies, etc that require constant and repetitive movement of the elbow joints, you are more likely to develop elbow pain. These are the most common causes of elbow pain:

  • – Fracture

A fall on the upper limb, especially the elbow can result in a fracture of the elbow joints and the surrounding bony areas  (3). Other sources of trauma (such as Road Traffic Accidents, blunt force, etc) to the upper limb could also result in a fracture of the elbow. Pain alongside swelling, redness, and an increase in temperature are common symptoms of such fractures. A common fracture of the elbow is an olecranon fracture. Tiny cracks in bones around the elbow (stress fractures) (10) can also result in elbow pain.

  • – Bursitis

Bursitis simply means inflammation of the bursa (4). A bursa is a sac-like cavity in the joint which contains a fluid. The sac together with its encompassing fluid serves as a cushion between the bones, muscles, and tendons surrounding your joint. Excessive use of the elbow joint leads to inflammation of the bursa

  • – Golfer’s Elbow

This condition is caused by overusing the elbow in a constant wrist or fingers-clenched position and making repeated motions similar to a golfer’s strike (5). Golf elbow pain is caused by inflammation of the tendons of your forearm which attach to the inner bump of your elbow. This results in elbow pain into forearm.

  • – Tennis Elbow

This is similar to a golfer’s elbow and is one of the most talked about causes of elbow pain. Unlike a golfer’s elbow, inflammation is at the tendon that attaches to the outer bump of your elbow (12). Do not be deceived by its name, this cause of burning elbow pain is not limited to just tennis players. You are likely to develop a tennis elbow if you constantly make similar movements to a tennis player. Carpenters, plumbers, painters, and butchers are at risk of having tennis elbow. The tennis elbow is also called lateral epicondylitis. In addition to pain at the elbow, tennis elbow is also characterized by elbow pain extension from the outer part of the elbow to the wrist and forearm. If you have tennis elbow, you might also observe that you have a weak grip. You might also experience elbow pain after lifting, and increased pain (15) when using tools, opening bottles or jars, squeezing objects, and shaking hands. One classical feature of tennis elbow is burning elbow pain and elbow pain after lifting heavy objects.

  • – Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis simply means the degeneration of the articular surface of a joint. Osteoarthritis at the elbow is not very common (compared to weight-bearing joints like the knees, hips, and ankles) but is still a possible cause of pain at the elbow joint (6). Professions, athletes, and hobbyists that make constant repetitive use of the elbow are more prone to elbow osteoarthritis. Other risk factors are old age and other diseases that reduce bone density. A history of trauma, fracture, osteomalacia (bone softness), and osteomyelitis (bone infection) at the elbow predisposes you to elbow osteoarthritis.

  • – Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Cubital tunnel syndrome is characterized by the compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow and forearm to elbow pain. The ulnar nerve is one of the three most important nerves that enter the forearm and supplies innervation to the forearm, wrist, hand, and fingers (13). Cubital tunnel syndrome is also referred to as ulnar nerve entrapment. In addition to the forearm to elbow pain, there is also pain at the inner side of the elbow. Another common symptom of cubital tunnel syndrome is paraesthesia (numbness and tingling sensations) along the inner side of the forearm and also at the fourth and fifth fingers.

  • – Osteochondritis Dissecans

This joint condition is caused by little or no supply of blood to the bone of the joint (7). This causes the cartilage and bone to lose strength and stability which results in reduced movement at the joint and also pain. It usually occurs after an injured elbow joint or very intense activity performed over several months.

  • – Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system mistakes the body for a foreign harmful substance and then fights it (8). This can affect a lot of systems and organs in the body and the extent of this damage varies from person to person.

  • – Sprain

Spraining ligaments around the elbow can be very painful. Spraining a ligament means getting a tear or stretch in a ligament (9). Sprains are usually caused by sudden excessive movement at a joint that results in stretching a ligament beyond its normal limits. Severe sprains usually result in excessive tears that may require surgery to repair.

  • – Dislocation

Just like fractures, dislocating any of the bones that make up the elbow joints also results in great pain. Fractures and dislocation at the elbow joint should be immediately reported to the hospital as they usually require urgent medical care. A common dislocation at the elbow joint is posterior elbow dislocation. This occurs when the ulna and radius (the two bones that make up the forearm) are forcefully displaced behind the humerus (the bone of the upper arm). This is the most common type of dislocation in children below the age of 10 years.

In addition to the causes listed above, elbow pain can also be caused by other types of arthritis (such as septic arthritis, gout, and reactive arthritis), and tendinitis (11). Tendinitis of the triceps results in tricep near elbow pain.

Complications of Elbow Pain

Usually, when you have elbow pain, the elbow joint does not suffer alone. Elbow pain, especially when prolonged, can result in several other things beyond the pain. Underlisted is some common complications of elbow pain:

  • – Reduced Range of Motion

Pain at the elbow causes you to not move your elbow adequately to avoid the pain. This temporary reduction in the range of motion at the elbow joint could result in a semi-permanent loss of motion if the pain is prolonged.

  • – Muscle weakness

The strength of muscles reduces when not in adequate use over a long period. Pain at the elbow leads to reduced use of the muscles of the upper limb especially the biceps, brachialis, brachioradialis, and triceps that control the elbow joint.

  • – Reduced ability to perform activities of daily living

The elbow joint is very crucial to the performance of simple daily tasks such as grooming, toileting, feeding, and even our occupations. Pain at the elbow immensely affects our ability to perform these tasks. This limitation usually results in reduced quality of life.

Managing Elbow Pain

The management of pain at the elbow joint is dependent on the cause of such pain and the severity of the cause. You can manage some elbow pains at home. For others, you need a team of health professionals to get the right care.


Diagnosing elbow pain means finding out the cause of your pain. Your doctor or physical therapist will help find the cause of your elbow pain through a series of objective and subjective assessments such as:

  • – Medical History / History of Elbow Pain

You will be asked various questions revolving around the severity and history of your pain. You will also be asked questions on the type and frequency of the physical activities you have been undergoing in the preceding days, weeks, and months. You will also be required to provide information on any previous medical conditions or trauma that could have resulted in your pain.

  • – Physical Examination and Assessment

Your doctor or physical therapist will examine the joint for signs of inflammation. You might also be asked to perform some movements that could elicit pain in the joint and help the examiner pinpoint the cause of your pain.

  • – Radiographic Investigation

Your doctor or physical therapist can request radiographs such as MRI, CT Scan, and X-rays to take a look at the bones that make up the elbow joint and the joint itself.

  • – Laboratory Test

In a case where conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis are suspected, you might be required to take a laboratory test to enable the medical personnel to make an accurate diagnosis. A biopsy of the bursa fluid can also be requested.

Treatment of Elbow Pain

Elbow pain can be managed in the following ways:

  • – Rest

Since most causes of elbow pain revolve around overuse and repetitive movement of the elbow joint, the foremost line of managing elbow pain is rest.

  • – Medications

Yes, you guessed right! Painkillers are one of the most common medications for elbow pain. Some painkillers can be gotten over the counter while you might need your doctor’s prescription for some other types. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are also common drugs used to manage elbow pain. They help reduce inflammation and associated pain. Your doctor must be aware of any drug hypersensitivity or allergy before the prescription. Your doctor might also prescribe drugs that help to reduce the effects of rheumatoid arthritis (Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)). Your doctor will prescribe some antibiotics in the case of infections at the elbow joint. Ensure that you use your medications as directed by your doctor, even after you feel better. Steroid injections are also sometimes prescribed to reduce elbow pain.

  • – Surgery

You may require surgery to repair the elbow joint depending on the cause of your elbow pain. Severe damage to ligaments and tendons usually requires surgical repair for better prognosis and faster healing. Some fractures are also hard to manage using conservative methods such as arm slings, Plaster of Paris, etc. These types of fractures usually require a surgical reduction.

  • – Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is a great conservative management option for various types of elbow pain. A physical therapist is a trained medical professional that can expertly assess your elbow pain and prescribe and apply various evidence-based treatment modalities such as ice therapy, massage, progressive exercises, elbow pain stretches, etc which will help in reducing your pain and improving elbow function and movement over time.

Home Management of Elbow Pain

Depending on the cause of your elbow pain, the following might be useful in reducing your elbow pain (2):

  • – Ice Pack, Heat Pack, Hot Water Bottle: Placing these over the painful area for an extended period can provide a level of relief for your pain.
  • – Braces or Immobilizers: Elbow braces can be very helpful in reducing elbow pain, especially at very early stages of injury. They also help to protect the joint, allowing better healing by disallowing further injury to the bones, muscles, ligaments, and tendons of the joint.
  • – Stopping and reducing overuse of the elbow joint: If there is a particular activity that you are aware might be the cause of your elbow pain, you would have to stop or greatly reduce such activity to allow the joint to heal. However, gentle elbow pain stretches help in pain reduction.
  • – Taping: Elbow pain kt tape (kinesiotape) provides some placebo pain relief (12). In addition to this effect, when done properly, elbow pain kt tape could act as a brace and protect the ligaments and tendons of the elbow joints from further injury.
  • – Elbow Padding

Ensure that you discuss all modalities with your doctor or physical therapist before trying them out at home.

Prevention of Elbow Pain

Usually, elbow pain is caused by overuse of the elbow joint for jobs, sports, and hobbies. Elbow pain can be prevented by (14):

  • – Using the proper sporting techniques.
  • – Using elbow padding.
  • – Warming up and stretching the muscles around the elbow before sporting activities.
  • – Using a properly-sized grip on sports equipment and applying the right tension when handling racquets.


















How To Reduce Knee Pain On Stairs

knee pain on stairs


The sensitive knee joint is put under a lot of strain during everyday duties like lifting and kneeling and high-impact exercises like jogging and aerobics.

The knee is made up of the following parts:

  • – Tibia: The shin bone or larger bone of the lower leg is this.
  • – Femur: The thigh bone, or upper leg bone, is this.
  • – Patella: The kneecap is seen here.

A cartilage layer covers each bone’s ends, absorbing shock and safeguarding the knee. The knee comprises two lengthy leg bones joined by tendons, ligaments, and muscles.

The quadriceps muscles, found on the front of the thighs and straighten the knee, are one of the two muscles that work there.

Knee Relief

Knee pain can be a serious problem for people of all ages. It can lead to severe joint damage and inflammation, leading to chronic pain and loss of mobility.

Arthritis is among the most typical causes of knee discomfort. Arthritis is a condition that occurs when your bones rub together, causing inflammation and damage to the cartilage in your joints.

Knee pain can also come from other things, like overuse and improper alignment. Sometimes it’s because your body isn’t used to doing what it needs to do to keep your knees healthy!

Fortunately, there are many ways to relieve knee pain with treatments like acupuncture and physical therapy.

What are the benefits of knee relief?

Knee relief can be beneficial in many ways. For one, it can ease the pain often caused by swollen joints. It can also help with arthritis and other joint pain issues. Knee relief also helps to improve circulation and reduce inflammation, which results in improved flexibility and mobility.

Knee relief is an effective method of pain management. When you use knee relief, you can:

  • – Relieve pain in the knee joint
  • – Ease tightness and stiffness in the joint
  • – Reduce swelling in the knee

Improve blood circulation to the area

Knee pain ligament

Knee pain ligament is a common complaint. Many factors can contribute to knee pain ligament, including age, sex, and activity level. The most common cause of knee pain ligament is osteoarthritis, characterized by a breakdown of the cartilage in the knee joint. This can cause pain and swell in different areas of your knee joint. Other causes of knee pain ligament include:

  • – Tightness in the iliotibial band (IT band) or patellar tendon
  • – Injury or trauma to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
  • – Inflammation from overuse or repetitive activities

Knee Pain Gout

Knee pain can be caused by gout, an inflammatory disease that affects the joints. The most common gout symptom is swelling and knee pain, which may be accompanied by redness, warmth, and tenderness. However, there are many other symptoms of gout that could be mistaken for normal knee pain. Gout can also cause stiffness and pain in your fingers, ankles, and elbows. If you experience these symptoms, consult your doctor to determine whether gout is the culprit.

How can I get knee relief?

Knee pain is a common health issue that can be difficult to deal with. You may have tried various treatments, including physical therapy and medications, but you still feel the same pain. Unfortunately, there is no single solution that will work for everyone.

We recommend trying these suggestions:

1) Check your shoes for wear and tear. If your shoes are too worn out or have fallen apart, they could contribute to the problem by cutting off circulation to your knee joint. Try switching to a new pair of shoes that are more comfortable and less likely to cause pain or injury.

2) Change the way you walk or run. If walking or running is causing pain in your knee joint, try changing how you move while doing these activities. Instead of walking or running directly forward, try taking short steps backward while taking small sideways forward every so often (like when walking upstairs). This movement pattern helps keep blood flowing around the body more relaxed and reduces pressure around joints such as knees when walking faster than usual.

3) Use heat packs rather than ice packs on painful joints during cold weather, such as winter months when temperatures drop below freezing levels outside due to the wind chill factor (which causes skin temperature drops). Heat packs are much better for soothing joint pain and swelling due to their ability to warm up affected areas. Ice packs should be used only for the first few minutes after an injury occurs so that blood flow can be slowed down from bleeding wounds or other injuries.

Knee pain lunges

Lunges are a great way to relieve knee pain. Lunges are low-impact exercises that help you achieve better leg alignment and circulation.

Lunges are a great way to relieve knee pain. Lunges are low-impact exercises that help you achieve better leg alignment and circulation. Lunges are a great way to relieve knee pain.

They work by moving you through a range of motion that is more comfortable on your knees than squats or other exercises that require you to bend at the waist.

Lunges also help strengthen your core and lower back muscles, which can be beneficial when you have knee pain.

When you’re experiencing knee pain, it can be difficult to figure out the problem. There are different types of knee pain, some of which can be very difficult to diagnose—and even more difficult to treat.

Knee pain like sharp needle is one of the most common types of knee pain, and it can be extremely painful. Sharp needle knee pain is caused by a lack of circulation in your legs. It’s often caused by an injury or a condition that causes swelling or inflammation in your leg muscles, such as Achilles tendonitis.

See your doctor for evaluation if this knee pain persists for more than two weeks. Surgery may occasionally be required to alleviate the symptoms of this condition and restore healthy circulation to your arms and legs.

Knee pain Kinesio tape

Kinesio taping is a type of therapeutic taping used in sports medicine for over 30 years. The idea is simple: using tape to enhance muscle function and increase circulation can help relieve knee pain.

Most people who go to the doctor do so because they suffer from knee discomfort, but it shouldn’t be ignored! Several factors might lead to knee pain, including osteoarthritis, tendinitis, or muscle strains. Each of these conditions requires different treatment methods; however, Kinesio taping can help with all three types of knee pain.

If you’re dealing with knee pain—whether from your knees themselves or something else—Kinesio taping can offer some relief. It’s also a great way to prevent future injuries if you’re already dealing with an issue like osteoarthritis.

Knee Pain VA Rating

Knee pain VA rating starts from 0% to 60%. The ranking is based on how much knee discomfort or immobility there is.

A veteran might be given a temporary 100% rating after surgery if too much wear and tear on the knee necessitates surgery.

Numerous knee VA ratings include measurements of the knee’s range of flexion and extension (how much the knee can straighten). Normally, flexion ranges from 135 to 140 degrees. The range of normal extension is 0 to -10 degrees. The VA will also look at knee instability, which is the ability of the knee to hold itself together. If this is not present, there can be pain and mobility problems.

Knee Pain in Pregnancy

If you’re pregnant and experiencing knee pain, you’re not alone.

Pregnancy causes your body to go through a lot of changes—from the growing of your baby to the stretching of your ligaments and tendons. And when it comes to your joints and bones, there’s plenty of extra work for them to do (including cramping up from all that extra blood circulation).

That’s why keeping up with your daily exercise routine during pregnancy is important: even mild exercises like walking can help with joint pain. And if you’ve been feeling discomfort in one joint, don’t hesitate to ask your doctor about any options they might recommend!

Knee pain on stairs

Knee pain on stairs is a common problem among people with osteoarthritis. The joints of the knee are made up of bones or cartilage. When the cartilage wears down, it can create friction between the bones, which causes pain and swelling.

Whenever you climb stairs, if your knees hurt, try these tips:

* Consider using an assistive device such as a stair-chair lift or scooter to move around easily during your daily routine. This can help reduce the impact your weight has on your knees, which will help reduce inflammation and improve mobility.

* Keep moving! Exercise regularly to strengthen muscles in your legs and feet as well as increase blood flow to your joints. Walking for 10 minutes at least three times per week is an easy way to start getting some exercise into your life!

* Apply ice massage after standing for a while (preferably not while wearing socks). You can do this by wrapping ice cubes in cloths or plastic bags (be sure they’re not too cold), then applying them gently over each joint of your leg or foot for 5 minutes every hour or so. This will aid in reducing swelling and easing inflammation-related pain.

Knee pain lower inside

If you are experiencing knee pain in the area of your inner thigh, it could be due to various reasons. The most common reason for this type of knee pain is inflammation from an injury or strain. If you have been experiencing this type of knee pain for a long period, it may be wise to see a doctor to rule out other potential causes.

Knee Exercises

  1. 1. Exercises for the Knees and Hips

The greatest method to avoid injury is to have strong, flexible muscles and joints that can withstand tension and injury. Certain exercises can help reduce some pain episodes in basic cases of knee discomfort. Remember to avoid any workout that causes pain.

  1. 2. Knee to Chest Twice

Begin on your back with your legs extended out. Bring both knees together and place your hands on the top of the shin below the knee area. The back of the thighs is an alternative location for your hands. Bring your knees up to your chest gradually and calmly, and hold this position for 10 seconds. Then return to the starting position.

  1. 3. Leg Cycle Exercise is an example of an “unweighted exercise.”

Begin by lying on your back with your legs up. For balance, extend both arms out to the sides. Start riding with your feet in the air. Increase the knee joint’s range of motion until each leg’s flexion is straight and extended, then 90 degrees bent.

  1. 4. Knee Full Extension Workout

Begin by sitting in a high enough chair to allow the knee to bend to a 90-degree angle. Raise the leg slowly until it is horizontal. Hold for five seconds, then carefully lower it to the ground. Rep with the other leg. Do twenty repeats.

  1. 5. Stretching a single hamstring.

sit on the floor with your left leg outstretched and your right leg bowed. Reach out with both hands toward the toes of your left foot. Instead of bouncing, slowly stretch. Hold the stretch for ten seconds before returning to the beginning position. Perform ten reps before switching legs.

  1. 6. With a chair, raise your legs horizontally.

Utilize two chairs or a chair next to a sofa. Sit down and stretch one leg, so it rests on the other chair. Maintaining its straightness throughout, slowly lift the leg no higher than twelve inches. Ten seconds of holding, then a return to the starting position. Each leg should be repeated ten times.


Knee pain alleviation is essential to the healthy functioning of the knee joint, which is why you need it. The application of knee relief can help prevent damage to the ligaments and cartilage of the knee, as well as discomfort that may be brought on by the movement of the knee joint.

While your legs are relaxing, kneading them can assist reduce swelling and inflammation, and massaging the affected area can also benefit the situation. Consider utilizing a laser device as a potential treatment method if you’re looking for something more effective.

Gout Leg and Gout Neck


What You Should Know About Gout Leg and Gout Neck

Gout can be awfully painful and incapacitating but treatable in almost all patients. Gout is a major foot problem, but it can also involve several other joints. It is important to know how to identify and treat it early to prevent complications.

Gout is a common type of inflammatory arthritis that causes swelling and pain in the joints, usually occurring as flares that last for more than a week. Gout flares often start from the big toe. Gout occurs when high levels of Uric acid build up in the body, which then forms needle-shaped crystals in and around a joint. This leads to inflammation of the joint.

When the body makes too much uric acid, also known as urate, or gets rid of too little, urate builds up in the body. Uric acid is produced daily when our bodies disintegrate purines. Purines are natural chemicals produced in the body, but they are also found in certain foods. However, not all people with high levels of Uric acid will not develop gout.

Gout and arthritis are often intercepted. Gout is a more complex form of arthritis that can affect anyone, and it is the most common form of arthritis.

The joint mostly involved in gout is the big toe (the first metacarpals) and is called podagra. More than one joint may be involved in a gout attack (and it can be any joint in the body), with the most common sites being in the feet, knees, elbows, and ankles. Rarely, gout neck occurs. They are uncommon manifestations of gout which involves tophaceous deposits in the larynx and auricular helix, as well as gouty arthritis of the temporomandibular, cricoarytenoid, and sternoclavicular, joints (1).

What Gout Looks Like?

The joint of the big toe is the most affected site of an acute gout attack. Unless gout is treated, these attacks can recur. Other sites like fingers, elbows, and knees are where people may experience gout (2). Gout attacks are characterized by swelling, warmth, reddish discoloration, marked tenderness, and rapid onset of pain at the affected joint. Consult a physician even if the pain is gone. Over time, they can harm tendons, joints, and other tissues.

Gout moves through several stages, which include:

  • – Hyperuricemia- elevated levels of Uric acid in the blood and crystals forming in the joint, but without any symptoms.
  • – Gout flares- This is when you experience an attack of intense pain and inflammation in your joints.
  • – Interval gout- This is the time between gout attacks with no symptoms.
  • – Tophi is a late stage of gout where Uric acid crystals build up in areas of the body. Tophi can cause permanent damage to your joints and kidneys. Proper treatment of gout can prevent the development of tophi.

How is Gout Diagnosed? 

A physical exam, medical history, and tests can help diagnose gout. Gout tests to be done include:

  • – Gout blood test to check uric acid levels. However, not everyone who has high blood uric acid develops gout, and some people with normal uric acid levels may develop gout.
  • – Joint fluid analysis- fluid from the painful joint(s) is withdrawn and examined under a microscope for the presence of uric acid crystals. This is the accurate way to diagnose gout.
  • – Imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging, X-rays, dual-energy computerized tomography, and ultrasound visualizes uric acid crystals in joints.

How is gout treated?

Gout can be efficiently managed and treated with self-management strategies and medical treatment. Your healthcare provider may recommend a medical treatment plan to

  • – Manage the pain of a flare. Treatment for flares consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like naproxen, ibuprofen, Diclofenac, etc. NSAIDs are generally prescribed for people below 65 who do not take blood thinners or have any history of bleeding because NSAIDs can induce intestinal bleeding and ulcers. Corticosteroids and the anti-inflammatory drug colchicine can help decrease pain and swelling. Lower doses of colchicine produce fewer side effects like diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea. Colchicine is best taken at the onset of an attack.
  • – Prevent future flares- changes to your lifestyle and diet, such as losing weight, reducing alcohol intake, and eating less purine-rich food (like organ meat or red meat), can help avoid future attacks. Emphasis on veggies, fruits, whole grains, nuts, and other whole, unprocessed foods. Changing medications like diuretics associated with hyperuricemia can also help.
  • – Prevent the formation of tophi due to increased levels of uric acid in the body. Tophi are hard, uric acid crystals below the skin. For people with frequent acute flares or chronic gout, preventive therapy is recommended to decrease the level of Uric acid in the blood using drugs like febuxostat, allopurinol, and pegloticase.

What are the symptoms of gout?

Symptoms of gout are not usually obvious unless there is a gout attack. These attacks usually last between four to seven days.

  • – Attacks

When you have gout, Uric acid crystals build up in your joints for years without you being aware they are there. Over time, excess crystals in the joint start to leak from the cartilage into the space in a joint.

The tiny, hard, sharp Uric acid crystals rub against the soft lining of the joint, causing a lot of pain and inflammation. This is known as a flare or attack of gout. A flare is a period in which the symptoms come back or get worse.

When an attack of gout occurs, the affected joint becomes very painful, red, and hot and appears swollen.

The onset of a gout Attack is very quick, mostly during the night.

If a gout leg is left untreated, attacks may become frequent and can spread to other joints. Although gout mostly affects the big toe, other joints include the ankles, knees, elbow, wrist, and fingers.

A gout attack can occur in several joints at the same time.

  • – Tophi (bumps under the skin)

When Uric acid crystals form outside of the joints and are seen under the skin, forming small, hard lumps, it is called tophi. the white color of the crystals can sometimes be visible beneath the skin. The most common areas for tophi are:

  • – back of the heel
  • – over the top of the toes
  • – front of the knee
  • – around the elbow
  • – backs of the fingers and wrists
  • – the ears

Although tophi are not usually painful, they can obstruct one’s daily activities. They sometimes become inflamed, open up and leak fluid with gritty white substances – these are the uric acid crystals.

Tophi also grows within the joints and cause damage to the cartilage and bone. Complications of tophi when not properly treated include a decrease in joint mobility, necrosis of the skin (cell death), ulcerations, compression of nearby nerves when it occurs in the spine, wrist, or elbow (3)

  • – Fever

The inflammation that occurs during a gout flare can become severe enough to cause gout with fever, fatigue, and malaise. These symptoms often occur when there is a gout attack on two or more joints.

Risk Factors of Gout

There are many risk factors for gout that increases your chance of developing it.

  • – Family history

This is the most common risk factor for developing gout, especially when many family members already have it, such as your parents or grandparents. Even though your kidneys are healthy, sometimes inherited genes make it difficult for your kidneys to flush uric acid as well as they should.

 – Obesity

Gout is more common in people who are overweight. The obese you are, the more uric acid your body produces. This causes your body to produce more uric acid than your kidneys can cope with.

Being obese also makes it more likely that you will develop:

  • – type 2 diabetes
  •  – fats in your blood.
  • – high blood pressure
  • – high cholesterol

These conditions can all reduce how much Uric acid is filtered by your kidneys.

  • – Gender and age 

Gout is four times more rampant in men than women. It affects men of any age, but the risk is higher in older men. Gout rarely occurs in women before menopause. This is because the estrogen in women increases how much uric acid is filtered out by the kidneys. After reaching menopause, estrogen levels go reduced and uric acid levels go up.

  • – Medications 

Some medications can increase your risk of developing gout, examples include:

  • – Low-dose aspirin.
  • – Diuretics, which remove excess fluid.
  • – Niacin (Vitamin B3), when taken in large amounts.
  • – Cyclosporine, an immunosuppressant for people who treat autoimmune diseases or have organ transplants
  • – Another risk factor for developing gout is eating foods rich in purines (usually from animal sources), a substance that breaks down into urate. Examples include trout, mussels, and codfish.

What triggers Gout? 

Some studies have shown that there is a correlation between eating gout and tomatoes triggers. Any food that increases the levels of uric acid in the body is a risk for people with gout. Since one’s diet can play a huge role in increased levels of uric acid in the blood, it is important to pay attention to the foods that trigger a gout flare. Many people with gout have identified tomatoes as one food that triggers gout flare-ups. Tomatoes contain two potential gout triggers: phenolic acid and glutamate (4). Although they are only present in minute quantities, some people have reported tomatoes as their gout triggers. Tomatoes may be worth removing from your diet if you believe they cause gout flare-ups.

Examples of food with highly concentrated levels of tomatoes include ketchup, pasta sauces, and vegetable juices.

Caffeine and gout risk 

Studies have shown that caffeine can precipitate gout flare in some people. Coffee might help prevent gout in people who do not already have the disease, but the caffeine it contains could spell doom if you already live with gout especially if you are not a consistent coffee drinker. The reason is that caffeine has a similar structure to allopurinol, a drug used in the treatment of gout. When you first start taking allopurinol, there is an increased risk of gout attacks since the uric acid is been mobilized from body tissues. Consequently, an inconsistent coffee drinker will activate this pathway, causing more gout attacks. Over time, taking allopurinol consistently reduces the uric acid in the blood, such that attacks no longer occur.

Turf toe vs gout

Turf toe can be easily mistaken for gout. Turf toe, also known as hyperextension, occurs when the big toe is far too bent towards the top of your foot (5). This can cause a sprain of your ligaments or toe.

How are gout and turf toe different?

In gout arthritis, damage to the joint occurs internally, which means there is uric acid buildup and urate crystals at the joint. But with turf toe, the injury to the joint is from an external force that bent the foot in a type of way.

The symptoms of gout arthritis are due to the formation of uric acid crystals at the joints or around the soft tissue, making it painful and difficult to move joints. In turf toe, the symptoms are due to hyperextension of the toe and surrounding ligaments and joints. Another difference between gout and turf toe is that

Gout can be managed with medications, diet, and lifestyle changes. While in turf toe, none of these treatment strategies help with turf toe.

Septic arthritis is a serious complication of gout arthritis. It is a painful joint infection that is caused by germs traveling through the bloodstream from another part of the body. Septic arthritis also occurs when a penetrating injury, such as trauma or an animal bite delivers germs directly into the joint.

gout and septic arthritis are major diseases that are clinically similar and often cannot be distinguished without a synovial fluid analysis.


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Inflammation Breast Cancer


What do we know about Inflammation and Inflammation Breast Cancer?

Inflammation is a natural, normal response your body uses to heal itself. It’s important to understand Inflammation because it can sometimes be a sign of something serious, like heart disease or cancer.

Inflammation happens when a foreign substance (such as bacteria or a virus) activates your body’s immune system. The immune system releases chemical messengers called cytokines to help fight bacteria or viruses. These cytokines cause blood vessels to widen and allow more blood to flow into the area where the infection occurs. The extra blood brings more white blood cells and other cells that can help fight off the infection. This article will explore Inflammation in more detail, including its causes, symptoms, treatment options and also discuss fully about Inflammatory breast cancer.

What is Inflammation?

Inflammation is the body’s response to injury, infection, or irritation. It helps to remove damaged tissue and repair the damage by bringing in cells that can help fight off infection and heal the area.

The inflammatory process is complex and can be difficult to understand. It involves several chemicals that act together on various cells, including blood vessels, immune cells, and fibroblasts (cells that make connective tissue).

When you have an inflamed skin area, many different things can cause it. Occasionally, an irritant like poison ivy or poison oak will cause Inflammation. In other cases, an infection like a bacterial skin infection or fungal skin infection can lead to Inflammation. In rare cases, some medications can also cause Inflammation in your body.

Types of Inflammation

  1. 1. Acute Inflammation

Acute Inflammation is the body’s immediate response to any kind of injury or infection. White blood cells rush to the wound or infection site to begin the healing process, which starts with blood coagulation. There, they generate chemicals that kill germs and hasten the healing process.

Acute Inflammation occurs all over the body, but it’s particularly important in protecting your skin from injury. When you cut yourself, for example, acute Inflammation causes white blood cells to rush to the wound site and release chemicals that kill bacteria, prevent infection, and begin tissue repair.

The body’s response to acute Inflammation can be painful—that’s why it’s called “acute.” But as long as you get medical help quickly after an injury or infection, acute Inflammation will usually resolve quickly and without lasting damage.

  1. 2. Chronic Inflammation

Chronic Inflammation is a state of hyperactivity in the immune system. When the immune system is constantly active, it can lead to chronic inflammation, which causes pain, fever, and swelling.

Chronic Inflammation can occur when a person has a viral or bacterial infection that they don’t get rid of completely. The body then continues fighting the infection even after it’s gone. This constant battle can cause chronic Inflammation.

Some people are more likely to develop chronic Inflammation than others. Those with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus are more likely to have problems with chronic Inflammation because their immune systems attack healthy cells instead of fighting infections.

Difference between the types of Inflammation

How does acute and chronic Inflammation differ from one another?

  1. 1. Acute Inflammation: the body’s response to a sudden injury, like slashing your finger. To hasten to heal, your body releases inflammatory cells to the wound. These cells start the healing process.
  2. 2. Chronic Inflammation: Even when there is no threat from the outside world, your body keeps releasing inflammatory cells. For instance, in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory cells and chemicals attack the joint tissues, causing an intermittent inflammation that can seriously harm joints and result in pain and deformity.

Causes of Inflammation

There are many possible causes of Inflammation, but some of the most common include the following:

  • – Infections: Bacterial, viral, and fungal infections can all lead to Inflammation.
  • – Allergies: Allergic reactions cause the release of chemicals that can trigger Inflammation.
  • – Autoimmune diseases: In these conditions, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues, leading to Inflammation.
  • – Physical injury: Damage to tissues from trauma or surgery can result in Inflammation.
  • – Chronic stress: Prolonged exposure to stress hormones can increase Inflammation throughout the body.
  • – Obesity: Fat cells produce inflammatory chemicals that can contribute to various health problems.
  • – Smoking: Cigarette smoke contains many inflammatory chemicals that can damage the lungs and other tissues.

Signs of Inflammation

You should be able to recognize the five cardinal signs of Inflammation right away because they are so typical. The organs they impact may vary; however, the symptoms of inflammation in the heart and other body regions are frequently extremely similar.

  • – Pain

Inflammatory substances that activate nerve endings cause acute and chronic inflammation pain, making the affected areas seem more sensitive.

Muscle and joint discomfort can be brought on by Inflammation. A person will have extreme pain sensitivity and stiffness levels when chronic inflammation. Touch sensitivity may be seen in inflamed areas.

  • – Heat

Because there is increased blood flow, inflamed body parts feel warm.

People who have arthritic problems may have warm-to-the-touch inflammatory joints. However, the warmth of the skin may not be as strong around certain joints. Because of the inflammatory reaction that occurs when a person is unwell or infected, whole-body Inflammation can result in fevers.

  • – Redness

Because the blood vessels in inflamed body portions are packed with more blood than usual, inflamed areas may seem red.

  • – Swelling

When a bodily component is inflamed, swelling, or edema, is frequent. It happens due to fluid buildup in tissues across the body or in the affected location.

  • – Loss of Function

Loss of function resulting from an injury or sickness may be brought on by Inflammation. For instance, an inflamed joint might not move correctly, or breathing might be challenging if a respiratory illness causes Inflammation in the lungs.

An injury begins with acute Inflammation, which lasts for a few days. There are two parts to it:

  • – The cellular component, which involves the activation and recruitment of leukocytes and macrophages, the first-line white blood cells, to the site of the damage
  • – The vascular phase, during which tissues swell and blood vessels widen (open) to accommodate the inflow of immune cells and antimicrobial compounds that occurs quickly.

Diagnosis of Inflammation

There are several ways to diagnose Inflammation. The most common method is to look for the signs and symptoms of Inflammation. However, several tests can also be used to confirm the diagnosis.

The most common test is an X-ray. This can show whether there is any damage to the bones or joints. Additionally, blood tests may be utilized to look for inflammatory markers in the blood. Finally, biopsies can be taken from the affected area to check for the presence of inflammatory cells.

Treatment of Inflammation

There are many different ways to treat Inflammation, and the best method depends on the underlying cause. For example, if you have an injury causing Inflammation, you will need to rest and ice the area to reduce swelling. If you have an autoimmune disorder causing Inflammation, you may need to take medication to control your immune system.

There are four basic types of inflammation treatments in general:

  1. 1. Medications: Several different medications can be used to treat Inflammation. The most common are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which include ibuprofen and aspirin. These drugs work by reducing the production of inflammatory chemicals in the body.
  2. 2. Steroids are medications that can be taken orally or injected directly into the inflamed area. They work by reducing the immune system’s activity, which helps reduce Inflammation.
  3. 3. Surgery: In some cases, An organ or tissue that has become inflamed may require surgery to be removed. This is usually only done in severe cases where other treatments are ineffective.
  4. 4. Lifestyle changes: Making certain changes can also help reduce Inflammation. These include maintaining a balanced diet, working out frequently, and controlling stress.

Prevention of Inflammation

There are a few actions you can do to stop inflammation.

First, eat a healthy diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. These foods contain antioxidants, which can help protect your body against Inflammation.

Second, exercise regularly. Exercise helps improve circulation and reduce stress, which can help reduce Inflammation.

Third, manage your stress levels. Stress can contribute to Inflammation, so it’s important to find ways to relax and de-stress. Try yoga, meditation, or deep breathing exercises.

Fourth, get enough sleep. For general health and well-being, as well as for reducing inflammation, sleep is crucial.

Finally, avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. Both of these habits can increase Inflammation in the body.

Inflammation Breast Cancer

Inflammation breast cancer (IBC) is a special type characterized by redness and swelling of the breast. Inflammation breast cancer is a very aggressive form of cancer and can be difficult to treat. Early diagnosis is critical for successful treatment.

1-5 percent of all breast cancers diagnosed yearly in the US are Inflammation breast cancer . It is more common in African American and younger women than in other types of breast cancer. Inflammatory breast cancer frequently begins as a persistent rash or discomfort on the breast skin. The skin may appear thickened or dimpled. The nipple may change shape or become inverted (turned inward). There may also be changes in the size of the breast. Inflammation breast cancer can be painful, but not all women experience pain.

Causes of Inflammation Breast Cancer

There are many different possible causes of inflammatory breast cancer. One common cause is the presence of certain types of bacteria in the breast tissue. These bacteria can release substances that promote Inflammation, which can result in the development of cancer cells. Other potential causes include hormonal imbalances, chronic stress, and exposure to certain chemicals or toxins. Additionally, Women with a family history of the disease may be more prone to develop inflammatory breast cancer.

Symptoms of Inflammation Breast Cancer

There are a few different symptoms that can indicate inflammation in breast cancer, and it is important to be aware of them so that you can seek treatment as soon as possible. One symptom is a persistent rash or redness on the breast that does not go away with over-the-counter treatments. Another symptom is breast pain that is not relieved by medication or other treatments. Additionally, you may notice swollen lymph nodes in the armpit or near the collarbone. To ensure that your doctor can correctly diagnose and treat you if you encounter any of these symptoms, it’s crucial to schedule a visit.

Treatment for Inflammation Breast Cancer

The stage of cancer dictates treatment for Inflammatory breast cancer. For early-stage cancers, surgery is often the recommended treatment. A combination of chemotherapy, radiation and targeted therapy may be recommended for more advanced stages.

Inflammatory Diet

Many foods can contribute to Inflammation in the body. These include processed foods, sugar, refined carbohydrates, saturated and trans fats, artificial additives, and chemicals. A diet high in these inflammatory foods can contribute to chronic Inflammation, a major health concern.

Processed foods: Processed foods are high in sugar, unhealthy fats, and chemicals. They are also low in nutrients. All of these factors can contribute to Inflammation in the body.

Sugar: An important cause of inflammation is sugar. It promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and can increase oxidative stress.

Refined carbohydrates: Refined carbs are stripped of fiber and other nutrients. This makes them more rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream, which can lead to spikes in blood sugar levels and increased Inflammation.

Saturated and trans fats: Saturated and trans fats are pro-inflammatory agents that can promote the development of chronic Inflammation.

Artificial additives and chemicals: Artificial additives and chemicals are found in many processed foods. They can be toxic to the body and cause Inflammation.


The body naturally uses inflammation to aid in healing. However, chronic inflammation can result in several medical issues. There are many possible causes of Inflammatory breast cancer, and it is important to be aware of all the potential risks. While some factors may be out of your control, If you are concerned about your risk for this disease, talk to your doctor about ways to help control it.

When To See A Shoulder Pain Chiropractor



The shoulder joint consists of broad and many motion ranges. When there is an issue with the shoulder joint, it obstructs the ability to move which will result in pain, swelling, and a whole lot of discomfort. Aside from the femur bone, the shoulder is another example of a ball, and socket joint, it is made up of three major bones which are, the humerus bone, which is a long bone, the clavicle bone, also called the collar bone because of its anterior location, and the scapula called the shoulder blade also located at the back posteriorly. There are cartilages around the bones that help to prevent friction because they serve as cushions (1).

It is interesting to note that the shoulder joint is also made up of two sub-joints, namely, the acromioclavicular joint made up of the clavicle, and the scapula. Second is the glenohumeral joint comprising the ball of the humerus and the external part of the scapula. Surgeons refer to the shoulder joint as the joint with the highest mobility range in the body, with the help of the rotator cuff muscle (1). The supporting group of muscle around the shoulder joint is the rotator cuff muscle, and it consists of four tendons. Tendons are tissues in the body that attach the muscles to the bones (1).

Patients often complain of shoulder pain lifting objects or the arm when there is damage to the tendons or the bones surrounding the joint, which can manifest as pain, and swelling around the joint. Injury to the shoulder joint can result from different activities such as contact sports, falls, or manual labor putting pressure on the joint.

There can also be pains radiating from other parts of the body to the shoulder joint, as a result of certain diseases, examples of such, are diseases affecting the heart, liver, and spine. Old age is another factor that predisposes one to shoulder pain, the older, the more susceptible one is to shoulder, which can be explained as a result of degeneration of soft tissues occurring with age.

Sometimes, home care can take care of shoulder pain, and other times, it will involve the use of medications prescribed by health workers, and most times physical therapy. This article will explore all you need to know about the causes of shoulder pain, the associated symptoms, and how to treat, and prevent subsequent shoulder pain (1).

Symptoms Of Shoulder Pain

Pain to the shoulder joint can present in various dimensions, depending on the etiology, that is the cause. The following are the different clinical manifestations of shoulder pain:

  • – Intensity: The intensity of shoulder pain differs. Pain can become very severe after exercise or on exertion, and gets relieved after taking medications, and another pain might be very severe all through both at rest and on exertion.
  • – Radiation: shoulder pain is the pain that will radiate down your arm, and can go up to the hand.
  • – Stiffness: it can get stiffed at times.
  • – Immobility: patient can experience difficulty in moving the shoulder, or an inability to complete the range of motion.
  • – Swelling: There can be associated swelling, as a result of fluid collection in the joint.
  • – Loss of function: this is often the complication of shoulder pain, at times the patient experience inability to move the arm, and hand, which can translate to an inability to use the such limb.
  • – Snapping sensation (2).

The pain in the shoulder joint can get severe, and will need the attention of health personnel. The following symptoms are warning signs that it is time to see a doctor for shoulder pain:

  • – Immobility or reduced motion.
  • – Pain with edema along the shoulder joint.
  • – A pain that does not get relieved with the use of medication.
  • – A pain that wakes the patient up from sleep or causes difficulty in falling asleep.
  • – The pain getting worse despite the medication.
  • – Shoulder pain with sharp pain describes as being sudden by the patient (3).

Causes Of Shoulder Pain

The following are the common conditions, and disorders responsible for pain in the shoulder:

  • – Rotator cuff injuries

The rotator cuff is the muscle group surrounding the shoulder joint, it is made up of four small muscles that come together to aid the movement of the arm, and lifting. Sometimes, shoulder pain from lifting is traceable to injuries to the rotator cuff muscles. The muscles, alongside the tendon, work together to keep the ball and socket joint in position, which is a tough task. Injuries to the rotator cuff muscles can lead to:

  • – Rotator cuff tears

Just as the name implies, it is a tear to the rotator cuff muscles, which can either be a complete tear or a partial tear of the rotator cuff muscles. The tear of the muscle can happen due to a single accident such as a fall on the arm, it may also be gradual in its onset as a repeat motion on the arm, a bricklayer will repeatedly use the shovel in a single direction, and can lead to raising of the arm frequently.

Shoulder pain while sleeping, at times can be a result of a tear to the rotator cuff muscle, or/and the tendons. Shoulder pain from lifting, in some cases, can be a pointer to a tear to the rotator cuff, or pains felt while trying to pick up high objects or comb the hair. In the past, immobility, and rest is sufficient alongside ice. But, patients are now advised to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and sometimes, physical therapy is employed (3).

  • – Rotator cuff tendonitis

Rotator cuff tendonitis is said to occur when there is inflammation affecting the tendon surrounding the joint, this will cause the patient to be irritable, and if it happens in a child, such a child will cry at every slight provocation. The pain is always more at the front and side, there are times the shoulder joint can also appear stiff and difficult to move. Regular people at yoga studios often complain of features of rotator cuff tendonitis. The treatment is similar to that of a rotator cuff tear, rest, application of ice, and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (3).

  • – Bursitis

Inflammation affecting the bursae, that is the sac in between the joints, containing fluids that help prevent friction, and serve as a cushion, is called bursitis. A lot of time, this result from continuous use of the joint for a long period, arthritis of the joint, and the pathogenic microorganisms causing infection, which also leads to bursitis.

Studies have revealed that recently, gout has been counted as one of the commonest causes of bursitis. Subacromial bursitis is a term used when this inflammation happens at the shoulder blade area, just before the rotator cuff group of muscles. Uninterestingly, bursitis can happen alongside inflammation of the tendons around the joint. This will manifest as severe pain, pain enough to disturb or distract the patient from going on with their normal daily activities (4).

  • – Shoulder dislocation

Shoulder dislocation is one of the common disorders of the shoulder joint, and causes severe pain at the shoulder joint. Shoulder dislocation occurs when the ball and socket joint of the shoulder is disrupted, that is the ball head of the humerus slips out of the socket, when this occurs, the pain is sufficient enough to disturb motion at the affected joint.

Depending on the severity of the dislocation, the shoulder can appear to be different in shape from the other normal shoulder, and sometimes, the bone can distort the skin too. Most shoulder dislocations occur as a result of injuries such as contact sports, accidents, or even falls. A previous shoulder dislocation is a risk factor for another shoulder dislocation in the future, and when this happens, orthopedics refers to it as chronic shoulder instability (4).

  • – Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a disorder that affects the shoulder joint leading to a degeneration of the cartilage of the joint. Several joints of the body can be affected by osteoarthritis, such as the shoulder joint, the hips, and the spine. Other joints prone to osteoarthritis are the knee joints.

Pain is the major clinical manifestation of osteoarthritis, others are edema, redness, hotness or differential warmth, and joint stiffness, and when severe, there can be loss of function in the affected arm of the body, and this is a warning sign to see a doctor. Some people may also complain of some sensation when they try to lift or move the affected joint, such sensation is referred to as a grinding sensation. Other things can also predispose one to osteoarthritis of the joint, such as a previous injury to the shoulder joint (4).

  • – Shoulder impingement syndrome.

Shoulder impingement syndrome is one of the causes of shoulder pain while sleeping, it occurs as a result of friction occurring between the soft tissues of the joint and the bones, the rubbing occurring can be as a result of any of the following:

  • – Inflammation of the tendons
  • – Swelling and pains in the bursae
  • – Bone spurs which occur with aging
  • – A malformed acromion bone, assuming a curved shape.

Shoulder impingement syndrome can result in pain felt at the outer part of the shoulder joint, shoulder pain lifting, shoulder pain worse at night, shoulder pain while sleeping, weakness of the arm, and sometimes, swelling is inevitable.

The treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome includes adequate rest of the shoulder joint, immobility, the use of anti-inflammatory medications, and exercises recommended by a physical therapist. Some doctors use corticosteroids on the affected joint to relieve the pain, and the swelling (5).

  • – Frozen shoulder

A frozen shoulder often occurs as a result of the thickness of the connective tissues around the shoulder joint, which can reduce the range of motion around the joint. The pain from the frozen shoulder is enough to disturb the patient from sleeping well at night, causing shoulder pain while sleeping. The exact etiology of frozen shoulder is not known, but studies revealed that it occurs as a result of prolonged immobility a long time, however, some conditions like diabetes mellitus increase the susceptibility to frozen shoulder.

The clinical manifestation of a frozen shoulder is in stages, the first stage is the freezing of the shoulder, resulting in pain while moving the joint, causing a reduced range of motion. The second stage is the frozen stage, where the pain is reduced, while the joint gets stiffened and the patient finds it difficult to move the affected limb. The third stage is tagged thawing, it is like a convalescence stage where motion improves and the patient can move the joint better.

The pain resulting from a frozen shoulder is usually worse in the evening, and it causes shoulder pain while sleeping. The best remedy is to treat the pain using pain-relieving medications, and exercises recommended by a physical therapist, and on rare occasions, steroids and surgical interventions are used (5).

  • – Shoulder pain from lifting

Weightlifters often experience shoulder pain lifting weights during their workout sessions. Studies have revealed that shoulder pain from lifting occurs as a result of three factors, weightlifters lifting heavy weights than they can carry, lifting weights without breaks in between, that is, too often, or a wrong technique of lifting. Any of the three is responsible for shoulder pain from lifting. Rotator cuff tear, tendinopathy, and impingement are the leading causes of shoulder pain from lifting.

Treatment Of Shoulder Pain

Most often than not, the cause of shoulder pain will dictate the treatment option, but there are general guidelines for the treatment of shoulder pain. These are:

  • – Home care: This includes the use of the following
  • – Rest the affected joint
  • – Apply ice to the affected area
  • – Gradual return to physical activities
  • – Use of over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen
  • – Clinic care: At the hospital or clinic, the following can be done to help the patient
  • – Use of medications, such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • – Injection of corticosteroids to relieve associated swelling
  • – Referral to a physical therapist to recommend the needed exercises
  • – Surgical manipulations, for cases such as dislocation (6)

When To See a Shoulder Pain Chiropractor

A chiropractor is a primary caregiver that takes care of the musculoskeletal system. They use various manipulations to treat joints and muscular issues. A patient can visit a shoulder pain chiropractor directly for their shoulder pain treatment because they are also primary caregivers or the doctor may refer directly to a shoulder pain chiropractor when the patient presents with conditions such as :

  • – Frozen shoulder
  • – Rotator cuff tears
  • – Tendonitis
  • – Others are Sprains at the joint. Bursitis, and unbelieving arthritis (7).


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Fibromyalgia Yoga



Fibromyalgia is a condition that affects millions of people around the world. It’s a chronic pain syndrome characterized by widespread pain in multiple body areas. This blog post will explore Fibromyalgia, what causes it, and how you can treat it. We also offer tips on coping with Fibromyalgia and living a fulfilling life despite the challenges it presents.

Fibromyalgia affects approximately 80% more women than men, with symptoms typically beginning in middle age and worsening over time. Although the exact cause of fibromyalgia remains unknown, it is thought to involve genetic, environmental, and psychological factors.

The condition can be difficult for patients to diagnose because no laboratory tests confirm the diagnosis. Instead, physicians rely on a careful history and physical examination to make the diagnosis. In addition to ruling out other possible causes for their symptoms, such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), patients may also undergo blood tests to rule out thyroid disease or anemia electrocardiograms (ECGs) if pulses are present.

What is Fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain condition estimated to affect up to 2% of the population. The pain is typically continuous and widespread, making everyday activities extremely difficult. The body’s over-activity causes fibromyalgia in the muscles and joint fibers that comprise the supportive tissue. These fibers become inflamed, which then causes pain. Although there is no known cure for fibromyalgia, there are therapies that can help control symptoms.

One common treatment for Fibromyalgia is medication. Common medications used to treat Fibromyalgia include antidepressants, NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), and tricyclic antidepressants. Other treatments may include exercise therapy, heat therapy, acupuncture, physical therapy, and massage. Some people find relief through self-help techniques such as journaling, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), yoga, and meditation. We still don’t fully understand fibromyalgia, so research into new treatments continues to be important.


There are three general categories of fibromyalgia:

  1. 1. Fibrofog- The term “fibro fog” refers to the mental fog that some people with fibromyalgia experience. This often occurs in people who experience extreme fatigue or sleep problems.
  2. 2. Pain- People with fibromyalgia often have trouble describing their pain in words or pictures because they often feel pain in other parts of their bodies. They may also have difficulty describing how their pain feels to others because it’s unique for each individual.
  3. 3. Fatigue- People with fibromyalgia also experience more fatigue than others due to their physical symptoms and cognitive issues.

Types of Fibromyalgia Pain

According to medical terminology, the first three types of fibromyalgia pain are:

  • – Hyperalgesia
  • – Allodynia
  • – Painful paresthesia


Algesia refers to pain, while hyper denotes excess. In Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS), pain is amplified, a condition known as hyperalgesia. Normal pain signals appear to be “cranked up” by our brains, making them more intense than they would otherwise be.

And guess what happens when your brain declares that the pain is severe: the agony worsens.

Most medications used to treat the pain associated with FMS work to lessen hyperalgesia, at least in part.


Is it unpleasant to touch your skin? Allodynia is a symptom that many of us find confusing. When garment pressure or gentle massage creates discomfort, it is known as that.

Allodynia is frequently compared to a terrible sunburn by its sufferers.

Other than FMS, a few other illnesses, such as neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia (shingles), and migraine, are known to cause allodynia.

It is thought that the central sensitization linked to FMS may cause allodynia, a hypersensitive reaction. Specialized nerves called nociceptors, which sense information about things like temperature and unpleasant stimuli directly from the skin, are the source of pain signals.

Painful Paresthesia

Paresthesias are strange nerve sensations that might make you feel numb, crawling, tingly, or burned. These feelings could occasionally be painful. Additionally, paresthesias are linked to peripheral neuropathy, chemotherapy, multiple sclerosis, and migraine.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are two popular FMS treatments that can help reduce the pain associated with paresthesia (SNRIs). Acupuncture, massage, capsaicin cream, vitamin B12, and other treatments are also effective for certain people.

Symptoms of Fibromyalgia

There isn’t a universal solution to this problem, as fibromyalgia symptoms can vary from person to person. However, some of the most common symptoms of fibromyalgia include the following:

  1. 1. Muscle pain, especially in the neck, shoulders, upper back, and hips
  2. 2. Fatigue
  3. 3. Difficulty sleeping
  4. 4. Anxiety or depression
  5. 5. Changes in bowel habits (constipation or diarrhea)
  6. 6. Sensitivity to light or noise
  7. 7. Feeling that something is constantly crawling on your skin

Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia

The symptoms of fibromyalgia are so variable, making a diagnosis difficult. Some people experience certain symptoms; for instance, some may only have headaches. Some people might exhibit all of the signs mentioned above.

Your doctor will initially inquire about your pain history and investigate for other possible diagnoses like lupus or rheumatoid arthritis if you think you could have fibromyalgia. They will also perform a physical examination to determine whether any underlying illnesses are causing your symptoms. To rule out any other disorders that could be the source of your symptoms, your doctor may request blood tests or X-rays.

The best technique to identify fibromyalgia is through a “functional diagnosis,” which is an interview procedure including both patients and medical professionals. To ascertain whether there are any relationships between your body’s systems (for instance, heart rate changes) and your reported symptoms entails asking questions about how you feel and what you do every day (like pain). For additional testing, your doctor may refer you to a specialist, such as a rheumatologist or a neurologist, if they believe you have fibromyalgia.

How to Treat Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder that causes widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and other symptoms. It can also lead to memory problems, irritable bowel syndrome, headaches, numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, depression, anxiety, and insomnia.

While there’s no cure for fibromyalgia, there are things you can do to treat it. The best way to treat fibromyalgia is through a combination of medications and therapies that work together to relieve symptoms and improve your quality of life.


Medications can help manage your symptoms by reducing pain and inflammation, improving sleep quality, boosting energy levels, and helping with mood changes. Some medications may also treat gastrointestinal issues caused by fibromyalgia, such as constipation or diarrhea.

Non-medicinal treatments

Many non-medicinal treatments available can help ease symptoms of fibromyalgia, such as exercise therapy (also known as aerobic training), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), massage therapy, and acupuncture. These therapies improve sleep quality, improving overall health by increasing energy levels throughout the day, allowing for better ability to manage daily tasks without feeling exhausted all day long.”

Exercise is one of the most important non-medicinal treatments for fibromyalgia. It helps to manage pain, improve sleep quality and reduce stress levels. Exercise therapy aims to increase physical activity while managing fatigue, stiffness, or soreness symptoms. Exercise can be done in many ways, including walking, swimming, and yoga.”

Fibromyalgia VA Rating

A Fibromyalgia VA rating can get 10, 20, or 40 percent. For a 10 percent disability rating, the veteran must take daily medication to manage symptoms. For the 20 percent disability rating, the veteran must experience episodic symptoms, made worse by environmental or emotional stress or overexertion, more than one-third of the time. For the 40 percent rating, the highest possible, the veteran must suffer from symptoms constantly or nearly constantly and not improve with therapy.

The fibromyalgia VA rating is a scale that rates the severity of symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. It is based on points, and each point represents one out of ten possible symptoms, including fatigue, pain, stiffness, sleep disturbance, mood changes, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), headaches/migraines, numbness/tingling, memory loss/hearing problems, etc. The higher the VA rating, the more severe the symptoms. A person with a VA rating of 10 will have all ten symptoms, while someone with a VA rating of 20 may only experience 5 out of 10. Doctors use the VA rating to determine if a person has fibromyalgia, and it’s also used to determine what kind of treatment they may need. If a person has a VA rating of 20 or above, they are usually prescribed medication for their symptoms. If their rating is below that threshold, they may not be necessary to take any medications.

Is yoga beneficial for fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia is a widespread pain illness marked by excessive exhaustion, mental abnormalities, cognitive difficulties, and all-over bodily aches. This syndrome’s causes are unknown, although it can be severely handicapping. Ten million Americans could be affected. Women between the range of 20 and 50 make up most of those.

Yoga for fibromyalgia offers three main benefits as part of a thorough treatment plan that involves dietary adjustments and medication changes.

  1. 1. Eases stress in the muscles

Muscle stiffness and tightness are two characteristics of fibromyalgia. Simple stretches for big muscles might keep them from cramping up or feeling stuck. Tight hamstrings and back muscles can be loosened up even by practicing a simple forward fold with the knees bent, and the chest relaxed onto the thighs.

Similarly, lunges maintain the hip flexors flexible, and a wide-legged forward fold on the ground opens up the hips. Warm, flexible muscles are less likely to get tense, which can help you manage your fibro discomfort.

  1. 2. Enhances spinal alignment

Your body’s skeleton, which is covered in muscle and tendons, is exquisitely constructed to support your weight. But when something isn’t aligned properly, pain and stiffness frequently follow.

When muscles, tendons, or joints hurt, it is natural to hunch over or cradle them. Yoga for fibromyalgia instructs you to position your skeleton correctly so that your entire body is supported.

Gentle, regular fibromyalgia yoga helps maintain muscles healthy and increases flexibility and spinal alignment. Strong muscles offer additional assistance. Daily duties become easier because of increased stamina brought on by strong muscles.

No matter your fitness level, you can still enjoy these muscle-building advantages. Yoga must be smooth, moderate, and fast-paced to build muscle. It can be gentle. Even sitting yoga that strengthens the back and core might reduce fibromyalgia discomfort.

  1. 3. Enhances mental and sleep quality

The third and possibly most significant advantage of yoga for fibromyalgia pain is psychological.

According to research, yoga improves sleep quality, lowers stress levels, and soothes the body and mind. Yoga reduces stress by controlling stress hormones with regular practice, and vigorous yoga releases endorphins, the brain’s happy hormones that improve mood.

Fibromyalgia Yoga

Fibromyalgia yoga is a form of yoga that helps people with fibromyalgia manage their symptoms. Fibromyalgia is a disease that causes widespread pain and fatigue. It affects an estimated 10 million people in the United States, and it can be difficult to manage because there are no medications that effectively treat its symptoms. Fibromyalgia yoga is one way to help manage these symptoms.

Fibromyalgia yoga involves gentle stretching, deep breathing exercises, and meditation. The movements in this type of yoga are gentle enough for people with fibromyalgia to participate without causing pain or discomfort. They also help you relax your body and focus on deep breathing techniques to help reduce anxiety and stress levels associated with fibromyalgia illness.

By participating in a regular program of fibromyalgia yoga, you can expect to see benefits like increased flexibility, improved sleep quality, reduced muscle tension and pain levels, reduced anxiety levels (which may lead to improved mood), better circulation throughout your body, which can result in less stiffness when waking up each morning (or after sitting for long periods).


Fibromyalgia is a disease that causes widespread pain and fatigue. It affects an estimated 10 million people in the United States, and it can be difficult to manage because there are no medications that effectively treat its symptoms. Fibromyalgia yoga is a form of yoga that helps people with fibromyalgia manage their symptoms. The fibromyalgia VA rating is a scale that rates the severity of symptoms associated with the illness. Several medications can lower the pain of fibromyalgia symptoms and enhance the quality of life and sleep. Seeking professional guidance and treatment as soon as possible is crucial if you have fibromyalgia.

Inflammation: Types, Causes, And Treatment


What is Inflammation?

Inflammation refers to the way the body responds to harmful stimuli such as pathogenic microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and irritants such as chemicals. The process of inflammation is a complex body response biologically, that involves the immune system, the blood cells, vessels, and molecular mediators (1).

The major reason for inflammation in the body is the eradicate cellular injury, remove the dead cells, that is the unredeemable damaged tissues from insults, and cause the process of tissue repair to start (1).

When there is an insult to the body system, which most time is an offending microorganism, such as bacteria and viruses, the immune system gets activated, which leads to the release of cytokines and other substances called inflammatory cells to start the process of curbing the pathogenic microorganisms or to heal the damaged body tissue, which can manifest as pain, edema, heat in the affected area, and sometimes loss of function on that part (2).

A lot of people mistake inflammation for infection when in the real sense they are two different entities. Infection is the terminology explaining the interaction between the microorganisms and the inflammatory cells. While inflammation strictly defines the immunology response of the body to the microorganisms irrespective of the cause. Clinically, words ending with the suffix -itis are used to describe the inflammation of that particular thing.

For instance, urethritis which denotes inflammation of the urethral is also referred to as infection of the urethral by some healthcare professionals because the cause is traceable to pathogenic microorganisms (1).

Interestingly, there are times the immune system causes inflammation without a trigger or stimuli, which means the body’s immune cells are attacking the normal body cells refers to as autoimmunity. Examples of such are type 1 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease (3).

Types Of Inflammation

There are two main types of inflammation, that is acute and chronic inflammation (4). Acute inflamation is often regarded as positive inflammation because it is involved with the healing process while chronic inflammation is seen as negative inflammation because it is often seen with chronic diseases. It is interesting to know that the two types of inflammation have different causes and different clinical manifestations (3).

  • – Acute inflammation: This is the immediate, and first response of the body to injury, and it is done by the transportation of the white blood cells, and plasma to the affected area in the body. This process is a combined action of both the blood cells and the immune cells to aid repair.
  • – Chronic inflammation: This is also known as prolonged inflammation, is characterized by changes in the kind of cells at the inflammatory site, and it involves repair and damage going on together at the same time. Most times, chronic inflammation is associated with chronic and autoimmune diseases (1).

Signs Of Inflammation

Clinically, there are four cardinal signs of inflammation, and these include redness, heat, swelling, and pain.

  • – Redness: Redness is gotten from the Latin word which means rubor and it results from blood vessels dilatation at the site of inflammation
  • – Heat: this result from the exaggerated movement of blood through the injury site and it is mostly felt in the skin. Fever, that is, elevated body temperature occurs as a result of the effects of the chemical mediators on the inflamed area.
  • – Swelling: clinically referred to as edema is mainly due to the retention of fluid in the tissues.
  • – Pain: pain is brought about by chemicals released during the inflammation process. Examples of such chemicals are serotonin, prostaglandins, and bradykinin (5).

Symptoms Of Acute Inflammation

Acute inflammation may result in the following manifestations:

  • – Change in skin color to red
  • – Pain at the inflamed site
  • – Swelling/edema
  • – Heat (2).

A classical acute inflammation manifests the general signs of inflammation.

Symptoms Of Chronic Inflammation

A chronic inflammatory process is sometimes difficult to identify when compared to acute inflammation. The following features are seen in chronic inflammation:

  • – Generalized body weakness as in lupus
  • – Hyperthermia (fever) as in tuberculosis
  • – Joint pain
  • – Joint stiffness
  • – Chest pain
  • – Others are skin rashes, and mouth ulcers (2).

Acute inflammation usually lasts for a few days, subacute inflammation extends to weeks, between two to six weeks, and chronic inflammation can be ongoing for months or years and is usually associated with recurrence (4).

Causes Of Inflammation

Inflammation results when injury triggers the immune system, causing an immune reaction to occur. When inflammation occurs, it does not translate to mean there is an active infection, although an infection process can lead to inflammation.

Causes Of Acute Inflammation

The process of acute inflammation can result from physical injury, an infection, insect bites, stings, and dust. The acute inflammation reactions are:

  • – The body tissues build up plasma proteins that will cause fluid to be retained in the tissues. This usually manifests as swelling.
  • – The white blood cells, mainly neutrophils, move towards the inflamed area to fight the pathogenic microorganisms
  • – Dilatation of the blood vessels occurs around the inflamed area and this ensures there is adequate transportation of the white blood cells and plasma proteins to the area.

Examples of conditions associated with acute inflammation are enteritis, tonsilitis, appendicitis, common cold, sore throat, physical injury, burns, and other illnesses ending with the suffix -itis (4).

Causes Of Chronic Inflammation

The following are the known causes of chronic inflammation

  • – Physical inactivity: physical inactivity is a risk factor for a lot of chronic diseases and age-related diseases. For anti-inflammatory processes to take place, it requires your muscles to be in active motion, and if you don’t meet this requirement, it will be difficult. Hence, chronic inflammation occurs.
  • – Diet: In overweight and obese people, taking diets containing high sugar levels, and high fatty acids increases the susceptibility to inflammation.
  • – Obesity: Central obesity is the most dangerous form of obesity, and this refers to increase visceral fat around the abdomen. Visceral obesity enhances the secretion of pro-inflammatory agents (3).
  • – Hormonal level: low level of sex hormones, especially estrogen and progesterone increases the risk of inflammatory diseases. Ordinarily, sex hormones reduce or decrease the inflammatory process
  • – Stress: high-stress level, especially psychological stress increases inflammatory chemicals in the body.
  • – Inadequate sleep: studies have shown that people with inadequate and irregular sleep are more prone to high inflammatory markers than those with regular sleep of eight hours or more per night.
  • – Age: age is a non-modifiable risk factor for getting chronic inflammatory conditions. The older the more one is at risk (3).
  • – Persistent acute inflammation: studies have shown that some people do not get total healing from acute inflammation, and in some cases, it translates to chronic inflammation.
  • – Exposure: continuous exposure to certain irritants, especially industrial chemicals result in chronic lung and skin inflammations.
  • – Sensitivity: allergy results when the body gets hypersensitive to an external trigger. The external trigger present stimulates the inflammatory process because the body sees it as something foreign that should not be there (4).

Conditions Associated With Chronic Inflammation

Chronic inflammation is responsible for the majority of chronic diseases and their associated complications. The most common link conditions to chronic inflammation have been typed 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertensive heart diseases.

Other conditions associated with chronic inflammation are:

  • – Hypertension
  • – Elevated cholesterol
  • – Acute and chronic kidney diseases
  • – Cancers
  • – Alzheimer’s disease
  • – Autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, lupus)
  • – Others are Liver diseases, depression, and osteoporosis (3).

Inflammation Breast Cancer

Inflammation breast cancer, otherwise known as inflammatory breast cancer, is one of the chronic diseases in women traceable to chronic inflammation. Inflammation breast cancer is not common and it rapidly progresses with the signs of inflammation present. The patient often complains of pain and swelling on the affected breast, and on examination, the breast appears red and tender when touched (6).

This chronic disease result from the cancer cells obstructing the lymphatic drainage of the skin above the breast (6). When this blockage occurs, it results in inflammation, which if not adequately investigated will be mistaken for infection.

Who Is Prone To Inflammation Breast Cancer?

There is no restriction as to who can develop inflammatory breast cancer but certain factors make some people at more risk of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) than the rest. Such factors are:

  • – Age: Younger women are more prone to inflammation breast cancer compared to the remaining types of breast cancer where the older, the risk exist. The average age of diagnosis recorded from studies is 57 years.
  • – Weight: women with obesity, that is, BMI greater than 30, are more at risk of inflammatory breast cancer than the normal weight women.
  • – Gender: inflammation breast cancer is commonly seen in females, although breast cancer is associated with both genders.
  • – Race: Black race is a non-modifiable risk factor for having inflammation breast cancer, and more mortality has been recorded in blacks (7).

Symptoms Of Inflammation Breast Cancer

Unlike the other forms of breast cancer where a breast lump is usually the first sign observed, inflammation breast cancer does not usually form a lump (3). The following are signs and symptoms observed in patients presenting with inflammation breast cancer:

  • – Physical swelling of the affected beast
  • – The heaviness of the affected beast
  • – Change in color of the affected breast, usually appearing as color red or pink on examination.
  • – Orange peel appearance of the skin over the breast
  • – Painful breast or tenderness on examination
  • – Differential warmth when compared to the other breast
  • – Lymphadenopathy, is an enlargement of lymph nodes around the breast, for example, the armpit, and above or below the collar bone.
  • – The nipple becomes flat or turns inward (6).

Some or all of the above symptoms must be present for at least six months before a clinical diagnosis of inflammation breast cancer can be made (6). If after treatment with antibiotics, the symptoms persist, the doctor should request a mammogram and other investigations to assess the patient. A definitive diagnosis is made after a breast biopsy is done and histopathology results confirm it to be inflammatory breast cancer (6).

Treatment Of Inflammation

There are varieties of treatments available for the management of patients presenting with inflammation. These may include rest, adequate exercises, and the use of medications, and in some cases, surgical and radiotherapy may be employed.

The treatment of each patient will be dependent on the type of inflammatory disease, the age of the patient, and the presence or absence of other co-morbidities. For every treatment, the aim is to achieve the following:

  • – Slow the cancer progression to the bear minimum
  • – Remove and decrease pain, and pain radiation to other parts of the body
  • – Enhance joint stability and remove immobility
  • – Help patients get more comfortable by employing the use of splints, and braces (8).


The following medications are used in the treatment of inflammation

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Although taking NSAIDS will not eliminate the etiology of the inflammation but it will help alleviate the pain resulting from the inflammation. Examples of such drugs are ibuprofen, diclofenac, and aspirin. The doctor should ensure there is no contraindication to the use of any of the drugs before prescribing such to the patient. For example, diclofenac is not encouraged in patients with peptic ulcer disease, and aspirin should not be used in patients with blood thinners (4).


Corticosteroids are synthetic steroid hormones in form of drugs, such as prednisolone, and dexamethasone. They are important drugs that alter the pathway of inflammation. They help to relieve the swelling in the affected part. They are also useful in the management of conditions associated with chronic inflammation such as lupus, allergic rhinitis, dermatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Corticosteroids should not be used for a long time because of the side effects such as immunosuppression. Therefore, its duration of use should be based on the doctor’s prescription (4).

Lifestyle modification

Inflammation management is not only based on the use of drugs. The following lifestyle changes will help relieve the symptoms of inflammation:

  • – Diet: studies reveal that patients with inflammation should take foods rich in olive oil, tomatoes, and fatty fish like mackerel, and salmon. Others are almonds, blueberries, and spinach (4).
  • – Exercises: in some chronic diseases associated with inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis, exercises will be required to aid movement and stability. The physical therapist will prescribe the required exercise to the patient (4).
  • – Surgery: In some cases, surgery will be required to aid recovery. If inflammation breast cancer is not amendable to medications, surgery alongside radiotherapy may be required to help the patient get better and for a better prognosis (8).


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A clear understanding of Arthritis



People understand Arthritis to be a disease of the joints. Indeed, the symptoms of the disease manifest in the joints. But, it should be considered a disease of the entire body. Although the symptoms may appear in a particular part of the body, no disease is exclusive to that specific part. When a part of the body suffers, the rest of the body does get affected. Appreciation of this fact will help us take a holistic view of our bodies rather than treating it as an assembly of various organs and tissues.

Any disease ending in ‘tis’ at the end of its name indicates Inflammation. So, Arthritis is an inflammatory disease of the joints. One may ask if Inflammation is the cause of Arthritis or vice-versa?

We will discuss Osteoarthritis (OA) as this form of Arthritis is most common. The old concept of OA was that it is a wear and tear disease, which happens to people in older age. We will discuss the new findings on the causes of Osteoarthritis.

At Perfect Svasthya we do not associate a disease with old age. You may say that a disease is more common in old age, but you should not call any disease an “old age disease”. It is presumptuous that people in older age are unhealthy and prone to several diseases. The disease may be more common because most people do not lead a healthy lifestyle when young and hence experience health issues in their mature years.


In the 1980s, histopathology of the synovium in Osteoarthritis demonstrated abundant Inflammation in Osteoarthritic patients. Goldenberg et al. (1982) noted that inflammatory synovitis is often present in osteoarthritis (1).

Modern imaging modalities demonstrate that osteoarthritis is a complex of multi-tissue pathologies. It involves Inflammation of synovium, cartilage, and subchondral bone. The changes in synovium appear before visible cartilage degeneration has occurred. The synovium lining layer thickens, and it produces inflammatory cytokines. The modern imaging modalities and synovium examination has confirmed that synovium remains inflamed in all stages of Osteoarthritis. Several studies also demonstrate that synovitis (Inflammation of synovium) causes pain and poor function. We can therefore infer that synovitis is the first stage in the development of Osteoarthritis.

A 2017 review published in ‘Arthritis Research & Therapy’ by Alexander Mathiessen and Philip G. Connaghan indicates that synovitis is essentially osteoarthritis (2).

Role of Inflammation in causing Osteoarthritis

The Inflammation of the synovium naturally affects the functions of synovium, one of which is the secretion of synovial fluid. If the synovial fluid becomes insufficient, the friction between the bones will damage the articular cartilages.

Many scientific studies demonstrate that synovitis (inflammation of synovial membrane) is the cause of pain. What seems clear is that the solution for osteoarthritis is in addressing inflammation. Reduction of Inflammation reduces pain.

The top priority in treating Osteoarthritis is pain and inflammation. Two enzymes predominantly promote inflammation. They are cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO). By inhibiting the pathways of these enzymes, we can reduce pain and inflammation. The Inhibition should be only of COX-2 and not COX-1 because the latter produces prostaglandins that activate platelets and protect the lining of the stomach and intestines.

Several natural anti-inflammatory substances have been evaluated scientifically for their efficacy in alleviating pain and inflammation. They inhibit COX-2 without inhibiting COX-1. The most effective of the natural anti-inflammatory substances is Perna canaliculus – also known as Green Lipped Mussel. This species is from New Zealand.

What causes Osteoarthritis (OA)?

OA is a lifestyle inflammatory disease of the joints. It is painful and restricts free movements.

What are synovial or diarthrosis joints?

Synovial joints are the most flexible joints. A synovial membrane called synovium surrounds the joint creating a cavity.  The synovium secretes synovial fluid into the joint cavity for lubricating the joint. Examples of synovial joints are knees, hips, elbows, wrists, neck etc.

What is inflammation?

Inflammation is a protective response of the immune system to an injury or an invasion by a pathogen.

There are two types of inflammation

  • – Acute inflammation
  • – Chronic inflammation

Acute inflammation is temporary. It is a part of the immune response to achieve the following objectives:

  • – To eliminate the agent that causes injury to the cells. It does so by destroying and neutralizing the harmful agent.
  • – To remove the damaged tissue
  • – To generate a new tissue

Chronic inflammation

Chronic inflammation continues to persist because the causing agents do not disappear. This type of inflammation is a lifestyle condition, and it is associated with all chronic diseases, including arthritis.

Principal causes of chronic inflammation

  1. 1. Foods are the principal cause of inflammation.
  2. 2. Sedentary lifestyle
  3. 3. Improper sleeping habits
  4. 4. Inability to handle stress


What you eat, how you eat and when you eat can indicate the causes of chronic inflammation.

List of pro-inflammatory foods:

  • – Refined carbs
  • – Excessive sugar consumption
  • – Deep-fried foods and junk food
  • – Industrially produced foods with synthetic colors, flavors and preservatives
  • – Excessive alcohol consumption

Eating improperly can cause inflammation

  • – Eating in a hurry without completing mechanical digestion and without initiating the process of chemical digestion in the mouth
  • – Irregular eating habit
  • – Drinking water while eating (dilutes the digestive juices in the stomach, disrupting protein digestion)
  • – Viewing TV, mobile, newspapers etc. while eating; interferes with the digestive process

Eating at odd hours can cause inflammation

  • – Irregular timings; not eating when hungry or eating when not hungry
  • – Odd hour eating; midnight snacking

 [Real hunger is the body’s need for energy. Fake hunger is an addiction to a specific food.]

Other factors leading to Osteoarthritis

A sedentary lifestyle is a significant contributor

Joints do need loading and moving for the nourishment of the articular cartilages. A sedentary lifestyle can cause low-grade inflammation and bring you the misery of OA.

Poor sleeping habits lead to inflammation

Sleep is to restore your organs, tissues and cells that have slogged through the day. Not sleeping enough and sleeping at irregular hours are significant causes of inflammation.

Inability to handle stress

Stress is a causative factor in chronic inflammation. Low-grade inflammation can affect all parts of the body, including the synovium. Inflamed synovium is osteoarthritis (1), and it causes pain.

OA is preventable and reversible!

Osteoarthritis is a life spoiler. It can cause untold miseries. You must proactively make sincere efforts to free yourself from this debilitating condition.

Solution for Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a lifestyle disease. Making corrections in your lifestyle can reverse OA. Perfect Svasthya can provide you with a guideline on how to change the “Four Verticals” of lifestyle.

Lifestyle changes are also essential because they are responsible for causing Osteoarthritis (OA). Avoid eating inflammation producing foods as described above.

Include physical activities in your daily routine. Walking and Yoga are excellent. Stress can also cause inflammation. Meditation may help in managing stress.

To enjoy restorative sleep, make your dinner light and free from proteins. Maintain a gap of a minimum of 3 hours between your dinner and bedtime. Do not watch TV, cellular and computer screens at least an hour before you go to bed. All of them interfere with the production of melatonin in the brain that is essential for your quality sleep.

Movement is essential for joyful living. Do all you can to restore the wellness for your joints.


  1. 1. Inflammatory synovitis in degenerative joint disease. D L Goldenberg, M S Egan, A S Cohen. J Rheumatol. Mar-Apr 1982;9(2):204-9.
  2. 2. Synovitis in osteoarthritis: current understanding with therapeutic implications. Alexander Mathiessen, Philip G Conaghan. Arthritis Res Ther. 2017 Feb 2;19(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s13075-017-1229-9.