A Comprehensive Guide to Managing Osteoarthritis



Understanding Osteoarthritis: A Comprehensive Guide to Managing Inflammation, Knee Pain, and Joint Discomfort


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. It is characterized by inflammation, knee pain, and joint discomfort, primarily targeting the weight-bearing joints such as the knees, hips, and spine. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and risk factors associated with osteoarthritis. We will delve into the mechanisms of inflammation and joint degeneration, shedding light on the intricate processes that contribute to the progression of this condition. Moreover, we will discuss various management strategies, including lifestyle modifications, exercise, medication, and complementary therapies, which can alleviate pain and improve quality of life for individuals living with osteoarthritis.

I. Understanding Osteoarthritis AKA Arthritis

A. Definition and Overview of Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that primarily affects the cartilage, the protective tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint. It is the most common form of arthritis and often occurs as a result of the natural aging process or wear and tear on the joints over time. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, but it most commonly affects weight-bearing joints such as the knees, hips, and spine.

In a healthy joint, cartilage provides a smooth surface for joint movement, allowing bones to glide against each other without friction. In osteoarthritis, the cartilage gradually breaks down and wears away, leading to joint pain, swelling and stiffness, and limited range of motion. As the condition progresses, bony outgrowths called bone spurs may develop at the edges of the affected joint.

  1. B. Causes and Risk Factors

The exact causes of osteoarthritis are not fully understood, but several factors contribute to its development. Age is a significant risk factor, as the incidence of osteoarthritis increases with advancing age. Other risk factors include obesity, joint injuries or trauma, repetitive joint stress, genetic factors, and certain metabolic disorders.

Additionally, certain occupations and sports activities that involve repetitive joint movements or excessive loading can increase the risk of developing osteoarthritis. For example, athletes, construction workers, and individuals involved in heavy manual labor may be more susceptible to joint degeneration.

C. Common Symptoms and Diagnostic Methods

The symptoms of osteoarthritis can vary depending on the affected joint, but common signs include joint pain, stiffness, swelling, and a reduced range of motion. Initially, individuals may experience pain and stiffness after periods of inactivity, which often improves with movement. However, as the disease progresses, pain may become more persistent and affect daily activities.

To diagnose osteoarthritis, healthcare professionals typically consider a combination of factors. They will evaluate the individual’s medical history, perform a physical examination to assess joint tenderness, swelling, and range of motion, and may order imaging tests such as X-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the joint structures and assess the extent of cartilage damage.

In some cases, joint fluid analysis may be conducted by extracting a small amount of fluid from the affected joint to rule out other possible causes of joint pain and inflammation.

Overall, early diagnosis is crucial for effective management of osteoarthritis. Understanding the symptoms and seeking medical evaluation can help individuals receive appropriate treatment and implement lifestyle modifications to minimize pain, maintain joint function, and improve their overall quality of life.

II. Inflammation and Osteoarthritis

A. The Role of Inflammation in Osteoarthritis

While inflammation is commonly associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, it also plays a significant role in osteoarthritis. Inflammation in osteoarthritis is considered low-grade and chronic, rather than the acute inflammation seen in injuries or infections. This chronic inflammation contributes to the progression of the disease and the associated joint damage.

In a healthy joint, inflammation is a natural response to injury or infection. It involves the release of chemicals called cytokines, which attract immune cells to the affected area, leading to redness, swelling, and pain. In osteoarthritis, the ongoing wear and tear on the joint triggers an inflammatory response, resulting in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).

B. Chronic Inflammation and its Impact on Joint Health

Chronic inflammation in osteoarthritis has detrimental effects on joint health. The pro-inflammatory cytokines released during inflammation contribute to the breakdown of cartilage, accelerating its degradation. They also stimulate the production of enzymes that further damage the cartilage matrix, leading to joint stiffness, pain, and loss of function.

Moreover, chronic inflammation in osteoarthritis triggers changes in the synovium, a thin layer of tissue that lines the joint space. The inflamed synovium produces excess synovial fluid, resulting in joint swelling and an increase in joint temperature. The altered synovium can also release more pro-inflammatory cytokines, perpetuating the inflammatory process.

In addition to cartilage damage, chronic inflammation in osteoarthritis can affect other joint structures. It can lead to the formation of bone spurs or osteophytes, as the body attempts to stabilize the joint. These bony outgrowths can further contribute to joint pain and interfere with joint movement.

C. Understanding the Inflammatory Cascade in Osteoarthritis

The inflammatory cascade in osteoarthritis involves complex interactions between various cells and molecules within the joint. The breakdown of cartilage releases fragments called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which act as signals for the immune system. These DAMPs activate cells called macrophages and fibroblasts, triggering the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators.

Once released, pro-inflammatory cytokines perpetuate the inflammatory response and attract more immune cells to the joint, including neutrophils and T lymphocytes. These cells further contribute to cartilage degradation through the production of enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which break down the cartilage matrix.

Additionally, the interaction between the inflamed synovium and the joint structures perpetuates the inflammatory process. The synovial cells release more cytokines, leading to a cycle of inflammation and tissue damage.

Understanding the inflammatory cascade in osteoarthritis is essential for developing targeted therapies that can modulate inflammation and halt the progression of the disease. Researchers are exploring various strategies to target specific cytokines, enzymes, and cell types involved in the inflammatory response, aiming to reduce joint inflammation, preserve cartilage integrity, and alleviate symptoms.

In conclusion, inflammation plays a significant role in the development and progression of osteoarthritis. Chronic inflammation in the joints leads to cartilage degradation, joint damage, and associated symptoms such as pain and stiffness. Understanding the complex inflammatory cascade involved in osteoarthritis is crucial for the development of effective treatment strategies aimed at modulating inflammation and preserving joint health.

III. Knee Pain or Knee Osteoarthritis

A. Knee Anatomy and Osteoarthritis

The knee joint is a complex structure consisting of bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and other tissues. It is particularly susceptible to osteoarthritis due to its weight-bearing function and the high forces it endures during daily activities. Osteoarthritis commonly affects the knee joint, leading to significant pain and functional impairment.

In osteoarthritis of the knee, the progressive breakdown of cartilage results in the bones of the joint rubbing against each other, causing pain, inflammation, and stiffness. The loss of cartilage also affects the shock-absorbing capacity of the joint, leading to increased stress on the surrounding tissues.

B. Types of Knee Pain in Osteoarthritis

Knee pain in osteoarthritis can manifest in various ways, and individuals may experience different types of pain:

  1. 1. Mechanical Pain: This type of pain is often described as a deep ache within the joint. It typically worsens with weight-bearing activities or excessive joint movement. Mechanical pain is a result of the direct impact of bone-on-bone contact due to cartilage loss.
  2. 2. Inflammatory Pain: Inflammation in the knee joint can cause pain characterized by swelling, warmth, and tenderness. This type of pain may be more prominent during periods of increased disease activity or after prolonged activity.
  3. 3. Rest Pain: Some individuals with knee osteoarthritis may experience pain even at rest or during periods of inactivity. This may be due to the ongoing inflammation and degenerative changes within the joint.
  4. 4. Referral Pain: Knee pain in osteoarthritis can sometimes radiate to other areas, such as the thigh or calf. This type of pain is known as referral pain and can be attributed to nerve compression or irritation.

C. Understanding the Mechanisms of Knee Pain

The mechanisms underlying knee pain in osteoarthritis are multifactorial and not fully understood. However, several factors contribute to the experience of pain:

  1. 1. Inflammation: Chronic inflammation in the knee joint triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which stimulate pain receptors and contribute to pain perception.
  2. 2. Nerve Sensitization: Ongoing joint damage and inflammation can lead to changes in nerve sensitivity, amplifying pain signals and causing heightened pain perception.
  3. 3. Synovial Irritation: Inflammation of the synovium can lead to the production of excess synovial fluid, causing swelling and stretching of joint tissues, which can contribute to pain.
  4. 4. Bone Changes: As osteoarthritis progresses, bony outgrowths or bone spurs can develop, leading to increased pressure and irritation of surrounding tissues, including nerves, contributing to pain.
  5. 5. Muscle Weakness and Imbalance: Osteoarthritis-related pain can cause individuals to limit their physical activity, leading to muscle weakness and imbalances. Weak muscles may be unable to adequately support the joint, leading to increased pain and instability.

Understanding the mechanisms of knee pain in osteoarthritis is essential for effective pain management strategies. Treatment approaches often focus on reducing inflammation, improving joint stability through muscle strengthening exercises, optimizing weight management, and implementing pain-relieving modalities such as heat or cold therapy, physical therapy, and medication as necessary.

By addressing the underlying causes of knee arthritis pain and implementing a multimodal approach to treatment, individuals with arthritis of the knee can find relief, improve their joint function, and enhance their overall quality of life.

IV. Managing Joint Pain in Osteoarthritis

A. Lifestyle Modifications for Joint Pain Relief

  1. 1. Weight Management and its Impact on Joint Health: Maintaining a healthy weight can significantly reduce the stress placed on weight-bearing joints, such as the knees and hips. Even a modest weight loss can alleviate joint pain and slow down the progression of osteoarthritis. Adopting a balanced diet and engaging in regular physical activity can help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
  2. 2. Exercise and Physical Activity Recommendations: Regular exercise is essential for managing joint pain and maintaining joint flexibility and strength. Low-impact exercises such as walking, swimming, cycling, and tai chi are beneficial for individuals with osteoarthritis. These exercises help strengthen muscles, improve joint stability, and enhance overall joint function. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional or a physical therapist to develop an exercise program tailored to individual needs and limitations.
  3. 3. Joint Protection Techniques: Implementing joint protection techniques can help minimize pain and prevent further joint damage. This includes avoiding activities that exacerbate pain or put excessive stress on the joints, using assistive devices such as braces or canes for added support, and adopting proper body mechanics during daily activities to reduce joint strain.

B. Medications and Therapies for Osteoarthritis Pain

  1. 1. Over-the-Counter Pain Relievers and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Nonprescription pain relievers such as acetaminophen and NSAIDs like ibuprofen can help reduce pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis. However, long-term use of NSAIDs should be monitored due to potential side effects.
  2. 2. Prescription Medications for Pain Management: In cases where over-the-counter medications are insufficient, healthcare professionals may prescribe stronger pain medications or opioids to manage moderate to severe pain. These medications should be used under medical supervision and with caution due to potential side effects and dependency risks.
  3. 3. Topical Analgesics and Corticosteroid Injections: Topical creams, gels, or patches containing ingredients such as capsaicin or menthol can provide localized pain relief. Corticosteroid injections directly into the affected joint may be recommended for short-term pain relief and reduction of inflammation.
  4. 4. Hyaluronic Acid Injections and Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy: In some cases, hyaluronic acid injections or PRP therapy may be considered. Hyaluronic acid injections provide lubrication to the joint, while PRP therapy involves injecting concentrated platelets from the individual’s own blood to promote healing and reduce inflammation.

C. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Joint Pain

  1. 1. Acupuncture and Acupressure: These practices involve the stimulation of specific points on the body to alleviate pain and promote healing. Some individuals find relief from joint pain through acupuncture or acupressure sessions.
  2. 2. Massage Therapy and Manual Techniques: Massage therapy can help reduce muscle tension, improve blood circulation, and provide temporary pain relief. Techniques such as deep tissue massage or myofascial release may be beneficial for individuals with osteoarthritis.
  3. 3. Herbal Supplements and Dietary Modifications: Certain herbal supplements, such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, have been used to manage joint pain in osteoarthritis. However, evidence for their effectiveness is mixed, and it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any supplement regimen. Additionally, adopting an anti-inflammatory diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and omega-3 fatty acids can support joint health.

It is crucial to discuss these treatment options with healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate and effective strategies for managing joint pain in osteoarthritis. Individualized treatment plans that combine lifestyle modifications, medication, and complementary therapies can help individuals find relief and improve their quality of life.

V. Lifestyle Changes to Support Joint Health

A. Optimal Nutrition for Osteoarthritis

  1. 1. Anti-inflammatory Foods and Omega-3 Fatty Acids: A healthy diet can play a crucial role in managing osteoarthritis and supporting joint health. Incorporating anti-inflammatory foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fatty fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids (e.g., salmon, mackerel, and sardines) can help reduce inflammation in the body. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and may help alleviate joint pain and stiffness.
  2. 2. Foods to Avoid or Limit in Osteoarthritis: Certain foods can exacerbate inflammation and contribute to joint pain in individuals with osteoarthritis. It is advisable to limit or avoid foods high in saturated and trans fats, refined sugars, processed meats, and excessive amounts of red meat. Additionally, some individuals may find that certain trigger foods, such as nightshade vegetables (e.g., tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants), can worsen their symptoms. It is important to pay attention to individual sensitivities and make dietary choices accordingly.

B. Exercise and Physical Activity Recommendations for Joint Health

  1. 1. Low-Impact Exercises for Osteoarthritis: Engaging in regular physical activity is vital for maintaining joint health and managing osteoarthritis. Low-impact exercises, such as walking, swimming, cycling, and water aerobics, are gentle on the joints while providing cardiovascular benefits. These activities help improve joint mobility, strengthen the supporting muscles, and reduce pain. It is crucial to start slowly and gradually increase the duration and intensity of exercise as tolerated.
  2. 2. Strength Training and Range of Motion Exercises: Incorporating strength training exercises into the routine can help support joint stability and reduce the risk of injury. Focus on exercises that target the muscles surrounding the affected joints, such as leg lifts, squats, and resistance band exercises. Additionally, performing range of motion exercises, such as gentle stretches and joint mobilization movements, can help improve flexibility and maintain joint function.

Maintaining a balanced and nutritious diet, combined with regular exercise, forms the foundation for supporting joint health in individuals with osteoarthritis. It is important to consult with healthcare professionals, such as dietitians and physical therapists, to develop personalized nutrition and exercise plans that consider individual needs, limitations, and preferences. Implementing these lifestyle changes can contribute to better joint function, reduced pain, and improved overall well-being.

VI. Surgical Interventions for Osteoarthritis

A. When Conservative Treatments Are Insufficient

In many cases, conservative treatments such as lifestyle modifications, medication, and physical therapy are effective in managing osteoarthritis. However, when these measures fail to provide adequate relief or when the joint damage is severe, surgical intervention may be necessary. Surgical options are typically considered when the pain and functional limitations significantly impact the individual’s quality of life.

B. Common Surgical Procedures for Osteoarthritis

  1. 1. Total Joint Replacement: Total joint replacement, also known as arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the damaged joint surfaces are removed and replaced with prosthetic components made of metal, plastic, or ceramic. This procedure is commonly performed for hip and knee joints. Total joint replacement aims to relieve pain, restore joint function, and improve mobility.
  2. 2. Partial Joint Replacement: In some cases, when the damage is limited to a specific area of the joint, a partial joint replacement may be performed. This involves replacing only the damaged portion of the joint while preserving the healthy parts. For example, a partial knee replacement involves replacing only the affected compartment of the knee joint. This procedure is appropriate for individuals with localized joint damage and can provide pain relief and improved function.
  3. 3. Arthroscopy: Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It involves inserting a small camera called an arthroscope into the joint through a small incision. Surgeons can visualize the joint structures and, if necessary, perform repairs or remove damaged tissues. Arthroscopy is commonly performed for knee and shoulder joints and can be helpful in relieving symptoms and repairing certain joint abnormalities.

It is important to note that surgical interventions carry their own risks and potential complications, and the decision to undergo surgery should be made in collaboration with healthcare professionals after a thorough evaluation of the individual’s condition, lifestyle, and preferences. Rehabilitation and physical therapy are typically an integral part of the recovery process after surgery, aimed at restoring joint function and optimizing outcomes.

Surgical interventions for osteoarthritis can provide significant pain relief, improve joint function, and enhance overall quality of life for individuals with severe joint damage. It is crucial to have open and honest discussions with healthcare professionals to understand the benefits, risks, and expectations associated with each surgical option to make informed decisions about the most appropriate course of treatment.

VII. Coping Strategies and Support for Individuals with Osteoarthritis

A. Emotional and Psychological Impact of Osteoarthritis

Living with osteoarthritis can have a significant emotional and psychological impact on individuals. Chronic pain, physical limitations, and changes in lifestyle can lead to feelings of frustration, sadness, anxiety, and even depression. It is important to acknowledge and address these emotional aspects of the condition in order to cope effectively.

B. Seeking Support from Healthcare Professionals and Support Groups

Healthcare professionals, such as rheumatologists, physical therapists, and occupational therapists, play a vital role in supporting individuals with osteoarthritis. They can provide education, guidance, and personalized treatment plans to manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Additionally, participating in support groups or connecting with others who have similar experiences can provide emotional support, practical advice, and a sense of community.

C. Managing Stress and Building Resilience

Managing stress is essential for individuals with osteoarthritis as stress can exacerbate pain and emotional distress. Engaging in stress-reducing activities such as deep breathing exercises, meditation, yoga, or engaging in hobbies can help alleviate stress. Building resilience and a positive mindset can also be beneficial. This involves focusing on strengths, setting realistic goals, practicing self-care, and maintaining a supportive network of family and friends.

It is important for individuals with osteoarthritis to prioritize their mental and emotional well-being alongside physical management. By seeking appropriate support, developing coping strategies, and maintaining a positive mindset, individuals can enhance their overall resilience and maintain a better quality of life despite the challenges of osteoarthritis.


Osteoarthritis is a chronic condition that significantly affects the lives of those affected. However, by understanding the mechanisms of inflammation, implementing lifestyle modifications, and seeking appropriate medical interventions, individuals can effectively manage their symptoms and improve their overall quality of life. It is important to remember that a comprehensive approach, encompassing both physical and emotional well-being, is crucial in dealing with osteoarthritis. By staying informed, adopting healthy habits, and utilizing the available resources, individuals can regain control over their joint health and lead fulfilling lives despite the challenges posed by symptoms and causes of osteoarthritis.

What Stress Does To The Body

What Stress Does To The Body


Stress: Causes Of Stress, What Stress Does To The Body, And Prevention Of Stress

Stress is an inevitable part of our lives. From everyday challenges to significant life events, we encounter stress in various forms. However, understanding stress, its causes, the stress diathesis model, and what stress does to the body is essential for managing it effectively and maintaining our well-being. In this blog post, we will explore the concept of stress, its effects on the body, and practical tips to cope with stress.


Stress can be defined as the body’s response to external demands or pressures, known as stressors. When we perceive a situation as demanding or threatening, our bodies trigger a complex response system that prepares us to take action. This response, known as the “fight or flight” response, involves the release of stress hormones, increased heart rate, heightened alertness, and other physiological changes (1).

Types Of Stress

Categorically, there are two major kinds of stress, acute stress, and chronic stress.

  • – Acute Stress

Acute stress is the most common type and is usually short-term. It occurs in response to immediate challenges or threats, such as an upcoming deadline or a sudden event. Acute stress can be beneficial in small doses, as it may increase focus and motivation. However, prolonged exposure to acute stress can lead to negative effects on health and well-being.

  • – Chronic Stress

Chronic stress is long-term stress that persists over an extended period. It often results from ongoing, repetitive situations, such as financial difficulties, relationship problems, or job-related stress. Chronic stress can have severe consequences on physical and mental health, including increased risk of heart disease, depression, anxiety, and weakened immune systems (2).

The Stress Diathesis Model

The stress-diathesis model proposes that the development of mental health disorders results from the interaction between environmental stressors and an individual’s underlying vulnerability or predisposition. The model suggests that individuals with a higher diathesis or vulnerability level are more susceptible to the effects of stress, increasing their risk of developing psychological distress or disorders.

Components Of The Stress-Diathesis Model

The following are the components of the stress diathesis:

  • – Stress: Stress refers to external events or circumstances that exert pressure on an individual’s adaptive capabilities. These stressors can be of various types, such as acute life events (e.g., loss of a loved one, job changes), chronic stress (e.g., ongoing work demands, financial difficulties), or daily hassles (e.g., traffic, conflicts).
  • – Diathesis: Diathesis refers to an individual’s underlying vulnerability or predisposition to developing mental health disorders. Diathesis factors can include genetic predispositions, early life experiences, personality traits, biological factors, and social factors. These factors interact and contribute to an individual’s susceptibility to stress-related difficulties.
  • – Interaction: According to the stress-diathesis model, the impact of stress on mental health outcomes depends on the interaction between stress and diathesis. Individuals with a higher diathesis level may be more likely to experience adverse psychological outcomes when exposed to stressors, while those with a lower diathesis level may exhibit greater resilience.

Implications Of The Stress-Diathesis Model

  • – Risk Assessment: The stress-diathesis model highlights the importance of conducting comprehensive risk assessments for mental health disorders. By evaluating an individual’s diathesis level and considering their exposure to stressful life events, mental health professionals can better identify individuals at higher risk and tailor interventions accordingly.
  • – Prevention and Early Intervention: Understanding the stress-diathesis model can inform preventive strategies and early intervention efforts. By identifying and addressing diathesis factors and providing stress management techniques, individuals can build resilience and reduce their susceptibility to stress-related mental health problems.
  • – Treatment Planning: The stress-diathesis model also guides treatment planning for individuals with mental health disorders. Therapeutic interventions may focus on both reducing stress levels and addressing underlying diathesis factors. This integrated approach promotes a comprehensive understanding of the individual’s unique vulnerabilities and stressors (3,4).

Causes Of Stress

Stress has become an unavoidable aspect of modern life, affecting people of all ages and backgrounds. It is crucial to identify and understand the causes of stress to effectively manage its impact on our physical and mental well-being. In this section, we will explore some common causes of stress, shedding light on the factors that contribute to its prevalence which further explains some reasons behind what stress does to the body.

Some of the causes of stress are:

  • – Work-related Stress

Work-related stress is one of the leading causes of stress in today’s society. Factors such as heavy workloads, tight deadlines, long hours, and conflicts with colleagues or superiors can create a high-pressure environment. Uncertainty about job security and career progression can also contribute to increased stress levels.

stress welts

  • – Financial Pressures

Financial concerns and insecurities can significantly impact our stress levels. The fear of not meeting financial obligations, struggling with debt, or facing job loss can create immense stress and anxiety. The constant pressure to maintain a certain standard of living and provide for ourselves and our families can be overwhelming.

  • – Relationship Challenges

Relationships, whether with family, friends, or romantic partners, can sometimes be a source of stress. Conflicts, misunderstandings, and strained communication patterns can create emotional distress. Balancing personal and professional commitments, meeting expectations, and managing conflicts within relationships can all contribute to elevated stress levels.

  • – Life Transitions and Events

Life transitions, such as moving to a new city, starting or ending a relationship, or experiencing the loss of a loved one, can trigger significant stress. Adjusting to change, coping with uncertainty, and managing the emotional impact of major life events can be challenging and overwhelming (5).

  • – Health Issues

Health concerns, whether personal or affecting a loved one, can generate considerable stress. Dealing with chronic illnesses, managing medical treatments, or worrying about the well-being of oneself or others can take a toll on mental and emotional well-being. Most times, stress on the heart is traceable to health issues as its underlying etiology.

  • – Academic Pressure

Students, in particular, face stress related to academic performance and the pressure to excel. Deadlines, exams, and the expectation to maintain high grades can create a demanding and stressful environment.

  • – Overwhelming Responsibilities

Feeling overwhelmed by multiple responsibilities and commitments can contribute to chronic stress. Balancing work, family obligations, social engagements, and personal aspirations can leave individuals feeling stretched thin and struggling to find a healthy work-life balance (6).

What Stress Does To The Body: Effects Of Stress On Different Body And Its Management

The effect of stress on the different parts of the body cannot be overemphasized as it affects practically every part of the body right from the central nervous system to the integumentary system.

The following are the effects of stress on the different parts of the human body:

  • 1. Stress on the heart

When we experience stress, our body enters a state of heightened alertness, triggering the release of stress hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline. These hormones increase heart rate, elevate blood pressure, and constrict blood vessels. While this response is helpful in acute situations, prolonged exposure to stress can lead to chronic elevation of these physiological responses, placing an excessive burden on the heart.

One of the key effects of chronic stress on the heart is an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that individuals who experience chronic stress are more likely to develop conditions such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and even heart attacks. The constant activation of the stress response can contribute to the buildup of plaque in the arteries, leading to atherosclerosis and reduced blood flow to the heart.

It is crucial to note that the effects of stress on the heart are not solely limited to physical factors. Psychological stress has been linked to increased levels of anxiety, depression, and hostility, all of which can further impact heart health. These mental health conditions can lead to unhealthy behaviors, poor adherence to medical treatment, and increased inflammation in the body, all of which can exacerbate heart-related issues.

To mitigate the detrimental effects of stress on the heart, it is essential to adopt effective stress management techniques. Engaging in regular physical activity, practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing exercises or meditation, maintaining a healthy diet, and getting adequate sleep are all beneficial in reducing stress levels and protecting heart health (7).

  • 2. Stress on joints

The effects of stress on the joint are better explained by studying the effects of stress on shoulders and the neck. These are two joints in the body commonly affected by stress.

One of the primary effects of stress on shoulders is the development of muscle tension and tightness. When we feel stressed, our bodies naturally prepare for action, resulting in the contraction of muscles. This can lead to chronic muscle tension in the shoulders, causing stiffness, discomfort, and even pain. Prolonged muscle tension can further contribute to poor posture and restricted range of motion in the shoulders, exacerbating physical discomfort.

To mitigate the effects of stress on shoulders, it is essential to incorporate stress management techniques into daily life. Regular exercise, such as stretching and strengthening exercises specifically targeting the shoulders, can help alleviate muscle tension and promote better posture. Engaging in relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing exercises or mindfulness meditation, can also help reduce overall stress levels and promote relaxation in the shoulder area (8).

  • 3. Stress on skin

Interesting manifestations of stress on the body include the appearance of stress welts on the skin and stress dyshidrotic eczema.

  1. a) Stress welts

These welts, also known as stress hives or stress rashes, can be a visible sign of the body’s response to stress and can vary in size, shape, and severity.

Stress welts, or urticaria, are an allergic reaction that occurs as a result of stress. When we experience stress, our bodies release stress hormones like cortisol, which can trigger a cascade of physiological responses. This includes the release of histamine, a chemical that causes blood vessels to leak fluid, resulting in characteristic welts or raised patches on the skin.

The appearance of stress welts can vary from person to person. Some individuals may develop small, itchy bumps, while others may experience larger welts that are accompanied by redness and swelling. These welts can appear suddenly and may change in size and shape over time. They can also be accompanied by itching, burning, or stinging sensations, adding to the overall discomfort.

Managing stress welts involves a multi-faceted approach. First and foremost, it is crucial to identify and address the sources of stress in one’s life. This can involve making lifestyle changes, practicing stress management techniques such as meditation or yoga, seeking support from loved ones or professionals, and adopting healthy coping mechanisms.

Additionally, certain topical treatments can provide relief from the discomfort associated with stress welts. Over-the-counter antihistamines or anti-itch creams can help reduce itching and inflammation. Applying cold compresses or taking soothing baths with colloidal oatmeal can also provide relief and promote skin healing (9).

  1. b) Stress dyshidrotic eczema

Dyshidrotic eczema, also known as pompholyx or dyshidrosis, is a skin condition characterized by the development of small, itchy blisters on the hands and feet. While the exact cause of dyshidrotic eczema is not fully understood, stress has been identified as a significant factor in triggering and exacerbating this condition.

The relationship between stress and dyshidrotic eczema is complex and multifaceted. Stress can weaken the immune system, making the skin more susceptible to inflammatory responses and allergic reactions. Additionally, stress can impair the skin’s barrier function, allowing irritants to penetrate more easily and trigger eczema flare-ups.

Managing stress is crucial in the management of stress dyshidrotic eczema. While it may not be possible to eliminate stress from our lives, some strategies can help mitigate its impact on our skin. Adopting stress management techniques, such as deep breathing exercises, meditation, and engaging in activities that promote relaxation, can help reduce stress levels and potentially prevent or minimize eczema flare-ups.

It is important to consult with a dermatologist or healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment plan for stress dyshidrotic eczema. They can guide managing stress, recommend suitable skincare products, and prescribe appropriate medications if needed (10,11).

  • 4. Stress on the urinary system

Stress in the urological system of man can manifest in various ways and one of the common manifestations is frequent urinary tract infections. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections that can affect various parts of the urinary system, including the bladder, urethra, and kidneys. While bacteria are the primary cause of UTIs, research suggests that stress can play a significant role in both the development and recurrence of these infections.

Stress is a natural response to challenging situations, but when experienced chronically or intensely, it can have a profound impact on our physical health. One area where stress can affect our body is the immune system. When we are stressed, our immune system may not function optimally, making us more susceptible to infections, including UTIs, and in such cases, they are referred to as stress UTIs.

When it comes to recurrent UTIs, stress can be a significant factor. Chronic stress can weaken the immune system over time, making it harder for the body to fight off recurring infections. Additionally, stress can disrupt the balance of the gut microbiota, which plays a role in maintaining urinary tract health. Imbalances in the gut microbiota can increase the risk of UTIs and contribute to their recurrence.

Managing stress is crucial in reducing the risk of stress UTIs and their recurrence. Incorporating stress management techniques into daily life can have a positive impact on overall well-being and urinary tract health. Strategies such as exercise, mindfulness meditation, deep breathing exercises, and engaging in hobbies or activities that promote relaxation can help reduce stress levels.

Furthermore, practicing good hygiene habits, such as wiping front to back after using the toilet, staying well-hydrated, and urinating before and after sexual activity, can help prevent UTIs. It is also important to seek prompt medical attention if UTI symptoms arise, as early diagnosis and treatment can prevent the infection from spreading and causing complications (12).

  • 5. Yeast infection

Recurrent yeast infection resulting from chronic stress is otherwise called a stress yeast infection. Yeast infections, also known as candidiasis, are fungal infections that commonly affect the genital area, mouth, throat, or skin folds. While yeast infections are primarily caused by an overgrowth of the fungus Candida albicans, stress can play a significant role in both triggering and exacerbating these infections.

Stress is a natural response to demanding situations, but when experienced chronically or intensely, it can have detrimental effects on our physical health. One area where stress can impact our body is the immune system. When we are under stress, our immune response may be compromised, making us more susceptible to infections, including yeast infections.

Stress can weaken the immune system by altering the balance of hormones and neurotransmitters in the body. This hormonal imbalance can disrupt the natural defense mechanisms that keep the Candida fungus in check. As a result, the overgrowth of yeast can occur, leading to the development of a yeast infection.

Good hygiene practices, such as wearing breathable underwear, avoiding douches or scented products in the genital area, and practicing proper vaginal care, can also aid in preventing yeast infections. Maintaining a healthy gut by consuming probiotic-rich foods or supplements can promote a balanced microbiota and reduce the risk of fungal overgrowth.

If experiencing symptoms of a stress yeast infection, it is important to seek medical advice for proper diagnosis and treatment. Over-the-counter antifungal medications are commonly available, but in some cases, prescription medications may be necessary to address more severe or recurrent infections (13).

  • 6. Effects of Stress on Menstruation

Stress, whether it is caused by emotional or physical factors, can disrupt the delicate hormonal balance in the body. When we are under stress, our bodies release stress hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline, which can interfere with the normal functioning of the reproductive system.

One common effect of stress on menstrual cycles is a delay in the onset of periods. Stress delaying periods occur as a result of high levels of stress which can disrupt the normal release of hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle, particularly the hormones responsible for ovulation. As a result, the menstrual cycle may become irregular, causing a delay in the start of menstruation.

Furthermore, stress can also lead to changes in the duration and intensity of menstrual flow. Some women may experience heavier or lighter periods than usual, while others may have irregular spotting throughout their cycle. These variations are believed to be influenced by the impact of stress on hormonal fluctuations.

If you experience significant changes or irregularities in your menstrual cycle that are causing concern, it is advisable to consult with a healthcare professional. They can provide guidance, perform necessary evaluations, and offer appropriate treatment options if needed (14).

Prevention Of Stress

Here are effective strategies to help prevent stress:


Stress is a medical condition that is characterized by a range of different symptoms. It is considered a symptom of stress when individuals experience physical and emotional tension in response to a stressful event. Stress can cause a range of physical and emotional symptoms and may negatively affect an individual’s ability to function properly.

Some of the common stress symptoms include high blood pressure, physical symptoms such as headaches, difficulty sleeping, and digestive problems. Stress is a physiological response caused by the activation of the autonomic nervous system through the fight-or-flight response.

While stress may be a normal response to certain situations, chronic stress can cause serious health problems. If left untreated, chronic stress can lead to heart disease, stroke, depression, and other chronic medical conditions. Therefore, it is essential that individuals seek medical assistance if they experience prolonged stress symptoms.


  1. 1. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/11874-stress
  2. 2. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/145855#types
  3. 3. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-the-diathesis-stress-model-6454943
  4. 4. https://www.tutor2u.net/hsc/reference/stress-diathesis-model#:~:text=The+stress%2Ddiathesis+model+is,by+the+stress%2Ddiathesis+model.
  5. 5. https://www.webmd.com/balance/guide/causes-of-stress
  6. 6. https://psychcentral.com/stress/what-causes-stress#cause-of-stress
  7. 7. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/stress-and-heart-health
  8. 8. https://www.eliteorthopaedic.com/blog/can-stress-cause-shoulder-pain
  9. 9. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317631#_noHeaderPrefixedContent
  10. 10. https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/eczema/types/dyshidrotic-eczema/causes#:~:text=Stress+or+weather+can+trigger,appear+until+their+stress+lessens.
  11. 11. https://balmonds.co.uk/blogs/blog/how-does-stress-cause-dyshidrotic-eczema
  12. 12. https://www.healthline.com/health/urinary-tract-infection-adults/can-stress-cause-a-uti#When-to-talk-with-a-healthcare-professional
  13. 13. https://www.healthline.com/health/can-stress-cause-yeast-infection
  14. 14. https://health.clevelandclinic.org/can-stress-cause-you-to-skip-a-period/

8 Causes Of Bone Pain

causes of bone pain


Causes Of Bone Pain And Treatment Options

Bone pain is a form of musculoskeletal pain that results in tenderness and discomfort felt in different bones, and joints of the body (majorly because bones come together to make a joint). Bone pain can occur in the upper body or the lower body. However, the majority of bone pain felt in the lower body commonly results from injuries such as in bone pain back of heel, bone pain big toe, and bone pain on side of foot.

treatments for bone pain

The causes of bone pain vary, some are easily identified, for instance, lower leg bone pain from a road traffic accident is easily traced back to trauma. However, some causes of bone pain are secondary to disease conditions, for instance, lower back bone pain, bone pain in thigh, and bone pain in knee may be radiating pain as a result of prostate cancer metastasizing to the bones.

Therefore, for any kind of low pain especially persistent or chronic pain, it is important to always visit the health care provider to identify the underlying cause and for adequate treatment (1).

Description Of a Typical Bone Pain

The basic character of bone pain is usually described as dull aching, manifesting from the inner part of the body. On palpation, the overlying skin can appear tender and may hurt mobility.

Most times, individuals with bone pain can locate the site of the pain. In pain radiating to other parts, the initial or starting bone pain is also easily identified by the patient. For example, knee bone pain may manifest as lower leg bone pain but the patient can easily describe the initial location as the knee.

Bone pain secondary to trauma or an open bone fracture from trauma may be characterized as sharp and very severe pain with a location pinpoint to the injury site.

Other important pain features that will be of help in the treatment of patients with bone pain are:

  • – The location where the bone pain is most severe
  • – If the pain is recurrent or persistent
  • – If the pain is associated with any particular timing of the day
  • – When the pain is worse
  • – Any aggravating or relieving factors
  • – Any radiation of the bone pain to other parts of the body, for instance, thigh bone pain may radiate to the knee (1).

8 Causes Of Bone Pain According To Location

Bone pain in the lower body has various etiologies and risk factors. Most of the times different causes are associated with different anatomical locations, which is the best way to discuss the causes of bone pain.

Below are some of the highlighted causes:

1. Bone pain side of foot

Bone pain on side of foot also called lateral foot pain is a type of bone pain that spans through the foot side including the ankle. It may be mild or severe which can prevent one from fee moving of the lower limbs.

Some of the causes of bone pain side of foot are:

  • – Cuboid syndrome

This occurs as a result of the partial dislocation of the cuboid bone, and the cuboid bone is one of the lateral bones of the foot. Hence, its manifestation is bone pain on side of foot.

Cuboid syndrome is usually secondary to vigorous sports activities for a long period without breaks in between. Putting on undersized or very tight shoes is another traceable cause of the cuboid bone’s dislocating from its original anatomical location.

Most times cuboid bone syndrome resolves on its own even before diagnosis occurs. It can however in certain instances lead to chronic bone pain on side of foot and weakness.

  • – Ankle sprain

An ankle sprain occurs secondary to ligament injury of the ankle and foot. It accounts for one of the commonest causes of bone pain side of foot, amounting to 85% of recorded data. It can occur with or without a fracture or a dislocation.

  • – Bunions

Bunions are a common defect of the bone characterized by internal rotation of the big toe towards the direction of the four other toes. This results in the majority of the body weight bearing to the lateral foot during standing or while walking consequently, this manifests as bone pain on side of foot (2).

2. Lower leg bone pain

Pain in the lower leg is characterized by bone pain below the knee joint. The affected bones include the tibia, the fibula, and the bones of the foot. Lower leg bone pain is caused by the following:

  • – Fracture

A fracture which is a break in the continuity of a bone can affect almost all bones of the body including, the tibia, fibula, and bones of the foot. Fracture is the commonest cause of lower leg bone pain.

  • – Cancer

Lower leg bone pain from cancer usually occurs as a result of a direct cancer of the bone affecting the lower leg, called osteosarcoma. It can also result from a distant cancer metastasizing to the lower leg bones as in prostate cancer.

  • – Trauma

Direct trauma to the bone either from a fall or from a blunt injury usually results in acute, and intense lower leg bone pain (3).

3. Thigh bone pain

Thigh bone pain commonly manifests from any injury or condition that affects the femur bone, this is because the femur bone is the single long bone located in the thigh.

The following are some of the causes of thigh bone pain:

  • – Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis of the thigh bone is a bone infection that affects the thigh bone. This is mostly a bacterial infection caused by the microorganism Staphylococcus aureus. Osteomyelitis of the long bone is either from a local infection or arising from a distant infection in the body or ongoing septicemia in the body.

As soon as thigh bone pain starts to manifest, it is best to visit the hospital immediately for diagnosis and adequate treatment. The best treatment for osteomyelitis if diagnosed early is the use of antibiotics but in chronic osteomyelitis, surgery may be indicated.

  • – Patellofemoral pain syndrome

Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a common cause of bone pain in thigh, especially in women and in athletes. It mostly occurs from joint overuse in sport training causing wear and tear of the cartilage located under the kneecap.

The clinical manifestation often includes bone pain in thigh, and pain at the anterior part of the knee joint, especially when in a squatting position or prolonged sitting. The pain however is described by the patient to be a chronic dull aching pain.

  • – Fracture

The femur is the bone of the thigh commonly fractured in trauma. Bone pain in thigh is usually described as aching, and severe and some patients give it a severity score of 10/10 when describing the thigh bone pain (4,5).

4. Bone pain on top of foot

Bone pain on top of foot is one of the complaints of foot pain in the clinic. Studies have revealed that the majority of the time, bone pain on top of foot occurs as a result of injury, use, and wear from friction from undersized tight shoes.

The following are highlighted causes of bone pain on top of foot:

  • – Stress fracture

A stress fracture is one of the commonest and most recorded causes of bone pain on top of foot. It occurs as a result of a fracture to the metatarsal bone from overuse and pressure. This is commonly seen among military men in training.

  • – Deformity of toe

A deformity of a bone either from a congenital or an acquired deformity will also cause bone pain on top of foot. A congenital deformity of the big toe, or an acquired deformity from fracture secondary to trauma will lead to bone pain big toe as well as bone pain on top of foot.

  • – Tarsal coalitions

In tarsal coalitions, there is an abnormally formed connection between the tarsal bones. The tarsal bones consist of the bones located at the heel of the foot, ankle, and arch. When this coalition occurs between bones, it manifests as recurrent and moderately severe bone pain on top of foot, and it is commonly seen in children (6).

5. Bone pain tibia

Tibia and fibula are the two major bones located in the leg below the knee joint. The tibia makes up the shin of the leg and of the lower leg bones, it is commonly fractured. The bone pain tibia is commonly called the shin splint.

The following are some of the risk factors for bone pain tibia or a shin splint:

  • – Runners who continuously run on a rough or uneven track, or those who suddenly increase speed.
  • – Dancers
  • – Bone pain tibia is also seen in individuals with flat feet or high arches. This prevents the bones and the muscles from protecting the leg from impact.
  • – Military men who stand or walk for a long time. Other professionals who will have to walk for a long time are also prone to having bone pain tibia.
  • – Unsupportive foot wears during daily exercise
  • – Nutrient deficiency as seen in vitamin D also predispose an individual to shin lifts.
  • – Underlying bone disease such as osteoporosis or osteopenia (7).

6. Knee bone pain

The knee is made up of the bones coming together ( femur, tibia, alongside patella bone), the ligaments, tendons, and cartilage. Whenever there is a problem with any of these components that make up the knee joint, it can manifest as bone pain in knee. Also, direct trauma or infection to any of the bony components will cause knee bone pain.

The following are some of the causes of knee bone pain:

  • – Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is one of the commonest causes of knee bone pain, especially in adults. It is an inflammatory disease of the knee joint that results from wear and tear of the knee joint. When this occurs, patients complain of a dull aching pain from inside, it can also be warm to touch alongside a red discoloration of the overlying skin,

  • – Patella fracture

The Patella’s bone is a small circular bone that is sited directly in front of the knee joint. Direct trauma to the knee joint can result in a fracture of the patella bone. A fall on the knee will also result in a fracture of the patella bone. When a patella fracture occurs, it results in bone pain in knee.

  • – Dislocation

Dislocation which means displacement of the bones of a joint can affect any of the bony components of the knee joint resulting in knee bone pain. There can be dislocation of the femur or tibia from their meeting point, or dislocation of the patella, the knee cap. When this happens, it results in bone pain in knee (8).

7. Bone pain back of heel

The following are the causes of bone pain back of heel:

  • – Haglund’s deformity

This deformity is also called a “pump bump”. It is a deformity of the bones at the heel leading to enlargement of these bones. In case of wear and tear from continuous pressure to the heel from undersized shoes result in irritation of the bones, and in such case manifest as bone pain back of heel.

  • – Stress fracture

A stress fracture is also another commonly reported cause of bone pain back of heel. This occurs as a result of continuous stress as seen in sports, and manual labor on the heel. Stress fracture resulting in a fracture to the metatarsal bone can also result in bone pain back of heel.

  • – Sever’s disease

Sever’s disease account for the commonest cause of bone pain back of heel in children and also in young adults. It occurs as a result of continuous microtrauma to the heel bone’s growth plate. The peak of this disease is seen between seven to fifteen years of age (9).

8. Bone pain big toe

The following are the common causes of bone pain big toe:

  • – Sesamoiditis

Sesamoiditis refers to inflammation of the sesamoid bones. This condition commonly occurs when there is inflammation or irritation of the tendons surrounding the sesamoid bone sited after the big toe, leading to bone pain big toe. It is commonly seen in runners.

  • – Fracture

A not-so-common cause of bone pain big toe is a fracture to the big toe which often result in intense pain, swelling, and deformity of the big toe (10).

Treatment For Bone Pain

There are several treatment options available for bone pain, some concerning the etiology of the bone pain. Some of the treatment options for bone pain are:

  • – Analgesics

Analgesics are the first line of drugs given to patients with bone pain especially from stress, or from conditions that may be causing the pain as fractures. Pain relievers can be gotten over the counter or based on a doctor’s prescription. Examples of pain relievers commonly prescribed are ibuprofen and acetaminophen.

  • – Antibiotics

In conditions such as osteomyelitis, a broad spectrum of antibiotics can be prescribed to help kill and stop the action of the invading microorganism thereby treating the infection adequately.

  • – Vitamin and calcium supplements

For individuals with bone deformities from mineral or nutrient deficiency, the doctor may be prescribed a vitamin D or calcium supplement help boost the nutritional level of the patient and restore good health.

  • – Cancer treatment

A commonly identified cause of bone pain lower body is cancer. Adequate and efficient treating all forms of cancer will help prevent metastasis to the bone and prevent bone pain.

  • – Surgery

Surgery is not usually indicated in the treatment of bone pain, except in cases of fracture where surgery is required to reduce and restrict the broken bone to bring about bone healing. Surgery is also indicated in the cases of bone deformity from other causes not amendable to physical therapy. Surgery may also be needed to remove cancerous bone in bone cancer, osteosarcoma (11).


Bone pain or tenderness can be a concerning issue that requires prompt attention from a healthcare provider. The causes of bone pain can vary from simple injuries such as bone bruises to more complicated health issues such as infections and cancers.

Unexplained bone pain, especially when it is persistent or worsening, should be evaluated by a doctor to determine the cause of the pain. While there are a variety of possible causes related to bone pain, some common treatments include rest, over-the-counter pain medications, and physical therapy.

In some cases, more intensive medical interventions may be necessary such as surgery or prescription pain medication. Whether the cause of the pain is due to a tailbone injury, bruise, or another condition, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible to address any underlying health issues and begin appropriate treatment.


  1. 1. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/symptoms/24619-bone-pain
  2. 2. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321176#causes
  3. 3. https://www.webmd.com/pain-management/lower-leg-pain-causes-and-treatments
  4. 4. https://www.buoyhealth.com/learn/thigh-pain
  5. 5. https://www.verywellhealth.com/thigh-pain-causes-treatment-4174433
  6. 6. https://www.foot-pain-explored.com/pain-on-top-of-foot.html
  7. 7. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17467-shin-splints#:~:text=Shin+splints+occur+when+the,bone%2C+muscles+and+connective+tissues.
  8. 8. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/symptoms/21207-knee-pain
  9. 9. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/181453#causes
  10. 10. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/big-toe-pain#common-causes
  11. 11. https://www.healthline.com/health/bone-pain#treatments

Skin Care Options

skin care options


Skin Care Options : Ingredients, Products, Vitamins, and Stem Cells

Taking care of your skin is an essential part of a good self-care routine. As you probably already know, the skin is the largest organ in the body, and it is the first line of defense against external factors such as sun damage, weather conditions, and pollution.

skin care moisturizer

To be able to maintain healthy and glowing skin, it’s crucial to know what skin care ingredients to avoid, your skin care options, what products to use, skin care must haves, and how to develop a routine that fits your skin type and age. In this article, we will explore different skin care options, from homemade remedies to must-have products, and we will touch on skin care with stem cells, skincare and makeup and how they complement each other.

Firstly we’ll discuss the skin care ingredients to avoid when getting skin care products that best suit your skin.

Skin Care Ingredients To Avoid

Not all skincare ingredients are beneficial to your skin. Some ingredients can cause irritation, dryness, or even worse, breakouts. When shopping for skincare products, it’s essential to check the ingredients list and avoid the following:

  1. 1. Parabens: They are commonly used as preservatives in skin care products. However, studies have linked parabens to cancer and hormone disruption (1). Avoid products that contain propylparaben, butylparaben, and methylparaben.
  2. 2. Fragrances: Fragrances can cause irritation, redness, and allergic reactions, especially if you have very sensitive skin. Instead, opt for fragrance-free products to avoid getting any reactions.
  3. 3. Sulfates: Sulfates are commonly used as a foaming agent in cleansers and shampoos. However, they can strip the skin of its natural oils and cause dryness, and makes you prone to irritation (2).
  4. 4. Alcohol: Alcohol is commonly found in toners and astringents. It can cause dryness and irritation, thereby disrupting your skin barrier, especially if your skin is sensitive.
  5. 5. Synthetic Colors: Synthetic colors are often found in skincare products to make them more visually appealing. However, they can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions.

Now, having discussed the skin care ingredients to avoid, here are some skin care products you should inculcate into your skincare routine.

What Skin Care Products Do I Need?

No more asking yourself what skin care products do I need. Here you have it. A good skincare routine should include the following products:

  • – Cleanser: This is the number one skin care for beginners and experts. A cleanser removes dirt, oil, and makeup from your skin. Choose a gentle cleanser that doesn’t strip your skin of its natural oils. If you have oily or acne-prone skin, look for a cleanser that contains salicylic acid, which can help unclog pores. skin care with salicylic acid is the gold standard for many acne, blackhead, and oily-prone skin treatment (3).
  • – Toner: Using a toner will help balance the pH of your skin and prepare it for the next steps of your skincare routine. Look for a toner that contains witch hazel, which can help reduce inflammation and redness.
  • – Serum: A serum is a concentrated formula that targets specific skin concerns, such as fine lines, wrinkles, and dark spots. Look for a serum that contains hyaluronic acid, which can help plump and hydrate the skin.
  • – Moisturizer: A skin care moisturizer hydrates your skin and locks in moisture. Look for a moisturizer that contains ceramides, which can help restore your skin’s natural barrier.
  • – Sunscreen: Sunscreen protects your skin from hazardous UV rays that has the likelihood to cause skin cancer, sun damage, and premature aging. Look for a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher, and apply it every day, even on cloudy days.

Skin Care Vitamin E

Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects the skin from damage caused by free radicals, which can lead to premature aging. It’s commonly found in skin care products, such as moisturizers, serums, and eye creams. Vitamin E can also help reduce inflammation, redness, and sun damage. If you’re looking for a vitamin E-rich skin care moisturizer, try the CeraVe Daily Moisturizing Lotion, which is suitable for all skin types and provides long-lasting hydration.

Skin Care With Salicylic Acid

Salicylic acid is a beta-hydroxy acid that is commonly used in skincare products for oily or acne-prone skin. It works by exfoliating the skin and unclogging pores, which can help reduce the appearance of blackheads and whiteheads. Skin care with salicylic acid can also help reduce inflammation and redness, making it a popular ingredient for those with sensitive skin. If you’re looking for a skin care with salicylic acid-based cleanser, try the Neutrogena Oil-Free Acne Wash, which is suitable for daily use and can help prevent breakouts.

Skin Care Moisturizer

A moisturizer is a crucial part of any skincare routine, as it helps hydrate the skin and prevent dryness and flakiness. Moisturizers come in many different formulas, such as creams, lotions, and gels, and they can be tailored to different skin types.

skincare and makeup

If you have dry skin, look for a moisturizer that contains hyaluronic acid, which can help retain moisture in the skin. If you have oily skin, look for a lightweight, oil-free moisturizer that won’t clog your pores. One of the best moisturizers for all skin types is the Cetaphil Daily Hydrating Lotion, which is non-greasy and absorbs quickly into the skin.

What Are The Different Skin Care Options

When it comes to skin care, there are many different skin care options to choose from, depending on your skin type, age, and concerns. Here are some of the most popular skin care options:

  • – Chemical Peels

Chemical peels are a type of exfoliation that uses acids to remove dead skin cells and promote cell turnover. They can help reduce the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and hyperpigmentation, but they should only be done by a licensed professional. They can be done on your face, neck, and hands. After a chemical peel, the skin becomes extremely sensitive to the and so you should always wear a sunscreen at all times (4).

  • – Microneedling

Microneedling involves using a device with small needles to create tiny punctures in the skin. This can help stimulate collagen production and improve the appearance of scars, acne, fine lines, sun damage, and wrinkles. This process is also known as collagen induction therapy and most times, you may need about 4-6 procedures to notice any change (5).

  • – Retinoids

Retinoids are a type of vitamin A that can help reduce the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles, and dark spots. They can be found in prescription-strength products or over-the-counter creams and serums.

  • – LED light therapy

LED light therapy involves exposing the skin to different wavelengths of light to promote collagen production and reduce inflammation. It can be done at home with a handheld device or in a professional setting.

Natural Skincare Options Routine

If you prefer a more natural approach to skincare, there are many skin care homemade remedies that you can try. Here are some DIY skin care homemade recipes you could try:

  1. 1. Honey face mask: Honey is a natural humectant, which means it helps retain moisture in the skin. To make a honey face mask, mix 1 tablespoon of honey with 1 tablespoon of plain yogurt and apply it to your face. Leave it on for 15-20 minutes, then rinse off with warm water.
  2. 2. Coffee body scrub: Coffee grounds are a great exfoliant that can help smooth and soften the skin. To make a coffee body scrub, mix 1/2 cup of coffee grounds with 1/4 cup of coconut oil and 1/4 cup of brown sugar. Massage the mixture onto your skin in circular motions, then rinse off with warm water.
  3. 3. Green tea toner: Green tea is rich in antioxidants that can help reduce inflammation and protect the skin from damage. To make a green tea toner, steep 1 green tea bag in 1 cup of hot water for 5-10 minutes. Let the tea cool, then pour it into a spray bottle and spritz it onto your face.

Skin Care Ingredients To Avoid During Pregnancy

If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, it’s essential to be cautious about the skincare products you use, as some ingredients can be harmful to your baby.

Here are some ingredients to avoid during pregnancy:

  1. 1. Retinoids: You do not want to be using retinoids when pregnant. Retinoids are a type of vitamin A that can be found in some anti-aging creams and acne treatments. High doses of retinoids have been linked to birth defects, so it’s best to avoid them during pregnancy.
  2. 2. Salicylic acid: While salicylic acid is generally safe to use during pregnancy in small amounts, it’s best to avoid high concentrations of salicylic acid, such as those found in chemical peels.
  3. 3. Hydroquinone: Hydroquinone is a skin-lightening ingredient that has been linked to fetal malformations and should be avoided during pregnancy.
  4. 4. Phthalates: Phthalates are chemicals that are commonly found in fragrances and have been linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity. Look for fragrance-free products to avoid phthalates.

Skin Care In Your 30s

In your 30s, your skin starts to lose some of its elasticity and firmness, and fine lines and wrinkles may start to appear. To keep your skin looking youthful, here are some tips for skin care in your 30s:

  1. 1. Use a retinoid: As mentioned earlier, retinoids can help reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Start using a retinoid as a skin care in your 30s to help maintain your skin’s elasticity and firmness.
  2. 2. Use a vitamin C serum: Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that can help protect the skin from damage and brighten the complexion. Look for a vitamin C serum to use in the morning before applying your skin care moisturizer.
  3. 3. Wear sunscreen: Sun damage is one of the primary causes of premature aging, so it’s essential to wear sunscreen every day, even on cloudy days. Look for a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher.
  4. 4. Stay hydrated: Drinking plenty of water can help keep your skin hydrated and prevent dryness and flakiness. Aim to drink at least 8 glasses of water a day.

What Are The Most Important Skin Care Must-haves?

While everyone’s skin care needs are different, there are some essential products that everyone should have in their skincare routine and are nonnegotiable. Here are some skin care must-haves:

  1. 1. Cleanser: A gentle cleanser is essential for removing dirt, oil, and makeup from the skin.
  2. 2. Moisturizer: A moisturizer helps hydrate the skin and prevent dryness and flakiness.
  3. 3. Sunscreen: Sunscreen helps protect the skin from damaging UV rays, which can cause premature aging and skin cancer.
  4. 4. Exfoliator: An exfoliator helps remove dead skin cells and promote cell turnover, which can help brighten the complexion and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

Skin Care With Stem Cells

Stem cells are cells that have the potential to develop into different types of cells in the body, and they have become a popular ingredient in skincare products. Stem cells from plants, such as apples and grapes, are often used in skincare to help protect the skin from damage and promote cell regeneration. Some studies have shown that skin care with stem cells can help reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, but more research is needed to confirm these benefits.

Skin Care To Reduce Redness

If you have redness-prone skin, there are some steps you can take to help reduce the appearance of redness. Here are some tips for skin care to reduce redness:

  1. 1. Use a gentle cleanser: Harsh cleansers can strip the skin of its natural oils and exacerbate redness. Look for a gentle cleanser that won’t irritate the skin.
  2. 2. Use a moisturizer with niacinamide: Niacinamide is a form of vitamin B3 that can help reduce inflammation and redness. Look for a skin care moisturizer that contains niacinamide to help calm and soothe redness-prone skin.
  3. 3. Avoid hot water: Hot water can cause the skin to become flushed and irritated, so it’s best to avoid hot water when washing your face or taking a shower. Use lukewarm water instead.
  4. 4. Use a green-tinted primer or concealer: Green-tinted products can help neutralize redness and create a more even complexion. Look for a green-tinted primer or concealer to use under your foundation.

Skincare and Makeup

Skincare and makeup often go hand in hand, as makeup can be a great way to enhance your natural beauty and cover up imperfections. However, it’s important to make sure that your makeup isn’t causing damage to your skin. Here are some tips for skincare and makeup:

  • – Use non-comedogenic makeup: Non-comedogenic makeup won’t clog your pores and can help prevent breakouts.
  • – Remove your makeup before bed: Leaving your makeup on all through the night can clog your pores and cause you to breakout. Always ensure to remove your makeup before bed using a gentle cleanser.
  • – Use a primer: A primer can help create a smooth base for your makeup and help it last longer.
  • – Look for makeup with skincare benefits: Some makeup products contain skincare ingredients, such as antioxidants or hyaluronic acid, which can help improve the health and appearance of your skin.


In conclusion, taking care of your skin is an important part of maintaining your overall health and well-being. Whether you’re a beginner or a skincare expert, there is a wide range of skincare options available to suit your needs and preferences.

By using the right skincare ingredients, such as vitamin E, salicylic acid, and stem cells, and avoiding harmful ingredients, such as retinoids and hydroquinone during pregnancy, you can help keep your skin looking healthy and youthful. Remember to always wear sunscreen, drink plenty of water, and be gentle with your skin, and you’ll be on your way to achieving a healthy, glowing complexion.



  1. 1. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/should-people-be-concerned-about-parabens-in-beauty-products/


  1. 3. https://www.nbcnews.com/select/amp/ncna1274542
  2. 4. https://www.webmd.com/beauty/cosmetic-procedures-chemical-peel-treatments
  3. 5. https://www.webmd.com/beauty/what_is_microneedling

How To Reduce Hair Loss

reduce hair loss


Hair Health: Hair Loss Causes, How To Reduce Hair Loss, And Treatment For Hair Loss

By employing the right hair care methods and adopting a balanced diet, the thousands of microscopic hairs on the head can stay fed and healthy. These techniques aid in preventing hair loss and thinning. Eating healthy prevents hair loss low iron and hair loss vitamin B12. Hair loss can be physiological or pathological, for women, it is mostly physiological, this explains why hair loss reasons for females is usually hair loss post-pregnancy, or hair loss 4 months postpartum.

hair loss reasons for female

Similar to skin welfare, the majority of individuals can obtain the necessary levels of vitamin B from diet alone, but taking a multivitamin regularly or B complex supplementation can aid in prevention of hair loss vitamin B12. Individuals typically don’t need to worry about taking excessive amounts of B vitamins because the human body releases what it doesn’t need because they are water-soluble (1).

Iron and protein remain both vital components of your diet that are most crucial. The body’s cells that make hair, which develop the fastest given that they are not necessary for living, are also among the first to be impacted by poor nutrition or deficiency.

Consider including foods high in iron in the diet, such as leafy greens, seafood, pumpkin seeds, legumes such as chickpeas and beans, soybeans, and grains. The daily iron intake should be approximately 12 milligrams, according to professionals to prevent hair loss low iron.

Protein is also necessary because it helps strengthen the shaft of the hair. Include full protein sources such as milk, cheese, dairy products, soy, lentils, peas, quinoa, and yogurt which are also high in amino acids.

Hair loss

There are many distinct manifestations of hair loss, including baldness and significantly receding hairlines. When a medical condition is appropriately handled, thn, hair loss can be a side effect that has to be managed and will go away on its own.

It’s crucial to make an appointment with a dermatologist if you notice balding or thinning hair to identify the root etiology of the problem and the best method to stop losing hair or stimulate growth.

is hair loss normal

Is hair loss normal? Yes, hair loss can be normal when it occurs physiologically. Normally about 50 to 100 strands of hair can be lost daily without noticing it.

However, hair loss can also be pathological, when it is secondary to a disease state. For example, cancer accounts for why hair loss in chemotherapy is popular these days, hair loss in iron deficiency anemia is also another pathological hair loss reason (5,6).

Hair loss can also occur based on gender reasons. Hair loss hereditary accounts for the highest cause of baldness hair loss seen in most men, and the low level of estrogen accounts for one of the hair loss reasons for females.

Additionally, hair loss post-pregnancy, that is, after childbirth is another common cause of hair loss in women of the reproductive age group.

Causes Of Hair Loss

The following are some of the general causes of hair loss as highlighted by professionals:

  • – Family history

As much as there are quite several environmental causes of hair loss from various conditions and substances, hair loss hereditary accounts for the commonest cause of hair loss particularly in males, although not restricted to the male gender alone.

This is medically called androgenic alopecia and it is common with old age, having both male and female patterns of baldness. It is always gradual in onset with a predictable diagnosis. For women, it is characterized by thinning of hair around the scalp’s crown.

  • – Hormonal changes

Hormonal changes especially in women during the puerperium, childbirth, postpartum, and menopause account for one of the hair loss reasons for females. This has been traced to low levels of estrogen occurring around this period.

Thyroid hormone level has also been associated with hair loss. For example, hypothyroidism, a condition in which there is a low level of thyroid hormone results in hair dryness, thinning, and hair loss.

  • – Medical conditions

Certain medical conditions and infections also result in hair loss. For instance, alopecia areata is an immune disease that occurs when the immune cells of the body begin to attack the hair follicles. This results in hair loss which are described as being sudden in onset, with an initial area of overlapping bald patches.

Tinea infection affecting the scalp is another popular fungi infection that if poorly treated can affect the scalp badly and result in hair loss. Trichotillomania is another medical condition that also results in hair loss.

  • – Medications and supplements

Side effects of some medications are not predictable most times till they start manifesting, and one of these unpredicted side effects is hair loss.

Although hair loss is common with certain medications such as chemotherapy, so many researchers have tried to give explanations as to why hair loss in chemotherapy happens, some explained it is a result of chemotherapy drugs targeting growing cells, rapidly growing ones, which in turn extend to attack the hair follicles causing the hairs to thin and fall off.

This is even worse when the treatment is targeted against head and neck cancer. However, it is not everyone receiving chemotherapy that will experience hair loss and it is not time bound to when it can start during chemotherapy treatment.

There are other medications reported to also cause hair loss, although not in most cases, and examples of such are antihypertensive medications, drugs used for gout, anti-depressants, and anti-arthritis medications (7).

  • – Hairstyles and treatments

Having the wrong hairstyle is one of the silent and gradual causes of hair loss. Hairstyles that cause pulling of the hair so tight, especially at the edges will result in gradual loss of the hair.

why hair loss in chemotherapy

Also, there are various hair treatment products available these days which are not scientifically proven to be suitable for the hair and scalp. Using too hot oils on the scalp can penetrate to affect the hair follicles which will cause the hair to fall off gradually. The latter, if not attended to in time, can result in permanent loss of hair.

  • – Stress

Many people respond to stress by thinning hair and loss of hair, irrespective of if it is physical stress or emotional stress. This also is not gender-based, as stress also accounts for one of the hair loss reasons for females.

  • – Ketogenic diet

Some people adopting the ketogenic diet exclude protein because they want to maintain ketosis, requiring a high ratio of fat to protein and carbs. A lack of protein in the diet may additionally result in hair loss.

Hair loss keto occurs as a result of low protein intake, which could have been the result of the human body trying to conserve and prioritize nutrients.

For strong and healthy hair, you require an assortment of essential nutrients. When following a ketogenic diet, reducing calories and whole food groups like carbs might reduce your intake of the many minerals and vitamins your body requires to promote healthy hair which in turn leads to hair loss ketogenic diet-induced in people (8).

  • – Post pregnancy

Hair loss post-pregnancy is common after childbirth and most times it corrects itself and hair grows back adequately. Hair loss 4 months postpartum is common and can last up to half a year before it starts growing back gradually.

This has been traced to the sudden drop in estrogen levels after childbirth. Estrogen hormone is responsible for the fullness and thickness of hair most women experience in their third trimester, and once delivery takes place, this hormone begins to wear out responsible for the popularity of hair loss 4 months postpartum, and it may begin three months postpartum in some women.

Regardless, it is a temporary condition that will correct itself back with proper hair styling, treatment, and good nutrients (9).

Tips For a Healthy Hair: How To Reduce Hair Loss

Hair loss is a common concern among individuals, especially as they age. To reduce hair loss, adopting healthy lifestyle habits is a good starting point. Regular physical exercise, eating a well-balanced diet rich in vital nutrients, and minimizing stress levels are all crucial in promoting healthy hair growth and preventing excessive hair loss. Additionally, engaging appropriate hair-care practices such as using gentle, sulfate-free shampoos and avoiding harsh styling products can help minimize hair breakage and promote a healthy scalp.

The following are healthy hair habits everyone should adopt to prevent damage to the hair and hair loss:

  • – Avoid panicking unnecessarily

Don’t bother yourself about the most unnecessary things. Is hair loss normal? Quiet frankly, it is yes, and in such case, you don’t need to panic about the strands of hair coming off after hair wash or after getting a wig off the hair.

Experts also revealed that losing about a hundred (100) to one hundred and fifty (150) strands of hair daily is normal and physiological. Therefore, unnecessary worries should be avoided when hair strands or bunch are seen around the house or apartment floor (1).

  • – Brush the hair before every hair wash or shower

Irrespective of what the texture of the hair can be, it is important and necessary to detangle the hair before bringing it into contact with water, soap, or shampoo.

hair loss hereditary

This is because wet hair is naturally prone to breakage but detangling every strand before it gets wet reduces the vulnerability. Another advantage of this is that it allows for equal distribution of hair oil from the scalp to the hair.

  • – Condition correctly

No matter how excellent the hair products and shampoo are, conditioning and washing the hair the wrong way will prevent the effective distribution of the products across the hair.

One of the best steps to ensure the shampoo goes around the hair is to start from the ends of the hair to the midshaft, and then finish up at the scalp. Repeat the order over and over to ensure effective cleaning. Also, choose a shampoo according to the texture and condition of your hair and scalp.

  • – Right products and ingredients

There are a million and one of different hair products outside today and with different ingredients as well. As you brainstorm on which products to go for, always bring forward the products containing ingredients that will nourish the hair, and prevent hair. Experts have suggested including the following in the hair care regimen, coconut oil, spirulina, and argan oil.

  • – Eating balanced diet

We are the clear product of what we eat. Proteins, vitamins, and iron are the most important nutrients required for hair to flourish and to avoid hair loss. Certain hair conditions such as hair loss vitamin B12 can be prevented by eating an adequate amount of vitamins, especially the B complex vitamins.


Hair loss low iron is also preventable by eating foods rich in iron and adequate proteins. This is to say eating these good nutrient-supplying food is also as important as using products containing the nutrients (2).

Health Conditions With Hair Signs

  • – Cushing syndrome

Brittle hair sign is one of the signs one is suffering from Cushing’s syndrome, a condition characterized by excessive accumulation of cortisol in the body, a stress hormone. Other characteristic signs of Cushing syndrome include elevated blood pressure, tiredness, and body pains.

  • – Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is a thyroid disease in which there are low levels of thyroid hormone in the body. Thinning of the hair and hair dryness is one of the primary signs of hypothyroidism on physical examination of the patients. Some autoimmune thyroid diseases also lead to hair loss.

  • – Anaemia

Sudden and excessive shedding of hair beyond normal could be a pointer to low levels of iron in the body. Hair loss low iron could be a pointer to iron deficiency anemia as iron is also necessary for the production of hemoglobin in the body.

  • – Malnutrition

Changes in the texture of hair and hair loss which is gradual in onset may be a pointer to malnutrition. Protein deficiency results in the fluffiness of the hair making the hair look so thin and scanty from hair loss. Hair loss vitamin B12 also occurs when there is an inadequate intake of vitamins enough to nourish the hair and keep it strengthened. Also, having a restrictive ketogenic diet may complicate hair loss keto induced due to the restrictive nature of the diet to low carbohydrates and high-fat diets, causing deficiency of the other food nutrients required to nourish the hair (3,4).

Treatment For Hair Loss

Most times, hair loss may not require treatment because it can be temporary as in hair loss 4 months postpartum, and it will grow back, it may also be physiologically occurring as a result of aging.

Hair loss, as a result, of medical illnesses starts growing back after treatment and recovery from the underlying cause, which is why hair loss in chemotherapy grows back after the rounds of chemotherapy required to treat the said cancer.

There is no definitive treatment for hair loss as none is 100% effective. However, below is the list of remedies for hair loss:

  • – Finasteride and minoxidil

The use of finasteride and minoxidil combined is a good treatment measure for male baldness. However, finasteride is not to be used by women. Only minoxidil is recommended for women. These drugs are expensive and not 100% guaranteed to work for everyone, and their action last only for time being used.

  • – Hair transplant

Hair is removed from a donor site usually the back of the head to a recipient site in front of the head to cover up patches and fill up hair loss follicles.

  • – Wigs

Women are advised to use wigs when they have hair loss, especially for temporary reasons such as hair loss post-pregnancy. This will help to boost their confidence for the time being.

Other treatment options for hair loss available are:

  • – Steroid injection for bald patches
  • – Steroid creams for bald patches
  • – Immunotherapy
  • – Ultraviolet light therapy (6).



Hair loss is a common concern among many individuals around the world. There are several types of hair loss, including male and female pattern baldness, alopecia areata, and telogen effluvium. However, there are ways to stop hair loss and promote hair growth.

A healthy diet rich in vitamins and minerals, such as iron and biotin, can help stimulate hair growth and prevent hair fall. Scalp massages and the use of essential oils like rosemary and peppermint can also promote hair growth by improving blood circulation to the scalp.

For those looking to regrow hair, there are several products available on the market that claim to stimulate hair growth and promote hair regrowth. Before trying any products, it is important to consult a healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause of hair loss and the most appropriate treatment. It is possible to stop hair loss and even regrow hair with proper care and treatment.


  1. 1. https://www.health.harvard.edu/topics/skin-and-hair
  2. 2. https://www.goodhousekeeping.com/beauty/hair/a28494129/healthy-hair/
  3. 3. https://www.everydayhealth.com/skin-and-beauty-pictures/things-your-hair-says-about-your-health.aspx
  4. 4. https://www.everydayhealth.com/ketogenic-diet/keto-diet-hair-loss-how-to-stop/
  5. 5. https://www.everydayhealth.com/skin-and-beauty-pictures/ten-causes-of-hair-loss.aspx
  6. 6. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hair-loss/#:~:text=It’s+normal+to+lose+hair,male+and+female+pattern+baldness.
  7. 7. https://www.mdanderson.org/cancerwise/hair-loss-after-chemotherapy–10-things-to-know.h00-159540534.html#:~:text=Most+hair+loss+during+cancer,treat+head+and+neck+cancers.
  8. 8. https://ro.co/health-guide/keto-hair-loss/
  9. 9. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/23297-postpartum-hair-loss

5 Treatments For Bone Pain

treatments for bone pain


Bone Pain: Causes, Symptoms, Types, and Various Treatments For Bone Pain

Bone pain can be a debilitating condition that affects the quality of one’s life. There are several reasons why you may feel pain in your bone. It could be due to injury, cancer, mineral deficiency, aging, or other medical conditions (1). The pain felt from the bone is different from joint pain or muscle pain because it’s present whether you move or not.

Bone pain is commonly linked to some diseases that affect the structure and function of the bone. In this article, we will discuss the causes, symptoms, treatments, and the various parts of the body where bone pain can be experienced such as shoulder bone pain, lower back bone pain, pain near the tailbone, forearm bone pain, neck bone pain, and bone pain in forearm.

What Are The Causes and Symptoms Of Bone Pain?

Bone pain can have several causes and also varying symptoms. Some of which include:

  • – Osteoporosis: A condition where bones become weak and brittle due to loss of tissue, which can cause pain and fractures. It can cause severe pain in the whole body and it usually occurs when more than 12 percent of the bone mass is gone. Symptoms common to this condition include stooped posture and loss of height over time (2). Individuals with osteoporosis should be treated with calcium tablets, and activate vitamin D.
  • – Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that can cause pain and stiffness in the joints, including those that connect to the bones.Generally in osteoarthritis, cartilage surrounding the surface of a joint begins to wear off due to wear and tear, causing friction between cortical bones.
  • – Leukemia: This is a cancer of the bone marrow. Leukemia begins in the soft spongy tissues in the inner cavity of the bone, where blood cells are produced. Symptoms include night sweats, pale skin, unexplained weight loss, and feeling fatigued.
  • – Bone cancer: Tumors that grow in or on the bones can cause localized pain and tenderness. This is because cancer can disfigure the bones’ normal structure. Other symptoms include a mass or lump under the skin, Increased bone breaks, numbness or tingling sensations (when a tumor presses against a nerve).
  • – Paget’s disease: A condition that causes the bones to grow abnormally, which can lead to pain and deformities. The spine, skull, and legs are mostly affected and because it causes the body to generate new bones too quickly, making them weaker, deformed and less organized
  • – Fractures: A broken bone can cause significant pain, especially if it is not properly set or allowed to heal. Symptoms include visible breaks, Swelling, visible deformities, and a grinding noise upon injury.
  • Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that affect the bones can cause pain and inflammation.
  • Osteomyelitis: A bone infection that can cause pain, fatigue, fever, and swelling. Infections sometimes reaches the bone by traveling from a near by tissue or the bloodstream. Individuals with chronic health conditions like diabetes, kidney failure are more likely to develop osteomyelitis.This infection kills bone cells (3).
  • Sickle cell disease: A genetic disorder that can cause bone pain due to a lack of oxygen to the bones.
  • Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition that can cause widespread pain, including in the bones.
  • Vitamin D deficiency: A lack of this essential vitamin can lead to bone pain and weakness. Other symptoms you may experience uncles cramps, fatigue, and sleep disturbances (5).

Types of Bone Pain

Shoulder Bone Pain

Shoulder bone pain can be caused by several factors, including injuries, overuse, and degenerative conditions. Common causes of shoulder bone pain include rotator cuff injuries, frozen shoulder, shoulder impingement, and osteoarthritis. Symptoms of shoulder bone pain can include difficulty moving the arm, aching pain in the shoulder, and stiffness.

arthritis facts

Treatment for shoulder bone pain depends on the underlying cause. Injuries can be treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation. Physical therapy and anti-inflammatory medications can also help. In more severe cases, surgery may be required.

Lower Back Bone Pain

Lower backbone pain is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It can be caused by different factors, including bad posture, spinal stenosis, muscle strain, and herniated discs. Symptoms of lower back bone pain can include aching pain in the lower back, difficulty moving, and shooting pain down the legs.

causes of muscle pain

Treatment for lower back bone pain depends on the cause. Mild cases can be treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation. Physical therapy and chiropractic care can also help. In more severe cases, surgery may be required.

Pain Near Tailbone

Pain near the tailbone, also known as coccydynia, can be caused by several factors, including injury, poor posture, pregnancy, childbirth, and degenerative conditions. Symptoms of pain near tailbone can include aching pain in the area, difficulty sitting, and shooting pain down the legs.

Treatment for pain near tailbone depends on the actual cause. Less severe cases can be treated with ice on the site of pain, anti-inflammatory medications like steroids, and taking adequate rest. Going for physical therapy and alternative traditional medicine like chiropractic care can also be of help. In more severe cases, surgery may be required.

Forearm Bone Pain

Forearm bone pain can be caused by several factors, including overuse, injury, and degenerative conditions. Common causes of forearm bone pain include tennis elbow, golfer’s elbow, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Some of the symptoms of forearm bone pain can include having difficulty moving the arm, aching pain in the area, and weakness in the hand. Treatment for forearm bone pain depends on the cause. Mild cases can be treated with rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medications. Physical therapy and chiropractic care can also help. In more severe cases, surgery may be required.

chiropractor for arthritis

Neck Bone Pain

Neck bone pain can be caused by several factors, including injury, poor posture, and degenerative conditions. Common causes of neck bone pain include whiplash, herniated discs, and cervical spondylosis. Symptoms of neck bone pain can include aching pain in the area, difficulty moving the head, and shooting pain down the arms.

Treatment for neck bone pain depends on the underlying cause. Mild cases can be treated with rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medications. Physical therapy and chiropractic care can also help. In more severe cases, surgery may be required.

Hand Bone Pain

Hand bone pain can be caused by several factors, including overuse, injury, and degenerative conditions. Common causes of hand bone pain include carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, and osteoarthritis. Symptoms of hand bone pain can include aching pain in the area, difficulty moving the fingers, and weakness in the hand.

Treatment for hand bone pain depends on the underlying cause. Mild cases can be treated with rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medications Physical therapy and occupational therapy can also help. In more severe cases, surgery may be required.

Bone Pain in Forearm

Bone pain in the forearm can be caused by several factors, including overuse, injury, and degenerative conditions. Common causes of bone pain in the forearm include fractures, sprains, and strains. Symptoms of forearm bone pain can include aching pain in the area, difficulty moving the arm, and swelling.

Treatment for bone pain in the forearm depends on the underlying cause. Mild cases can be treated with rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medications. Physical therapy and chiropractic care can also help. In more severe cases, surgery may be required.

How Much Do Bone Density Tests Cost?

Bone density tests, also known as DXA scans, are used to measure bone density and diagnose conditions such as osteoporosis. The cost of a bone density test can vary depending on several factors, including location, type of test, and insurance coverage. According to Healthcare Bluebook, the cost of a bone density test can range from $150 to $300 without insurance. However, insurance coverage can significantly reduce the cost, with some plans covering the entire cost of the test.

Bone Pain with Leukemia

Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. Bone pain is a common symptom of leukemia, particularly in the long bones of the body, such as the legs and arms. The pain can be caused by the cancer cells invading the bone marrow or by the treatment of cancer (6).

Treatment for bone pain with leukemia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, pain medications, such as opioids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may be prescribed. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used to target the cancer cells causing the pain.

Bone Health and Vitamin D

Vitamin D is essential for bone health, as it helps the body absorb calcium, which is necessary for strong bones. A deficiency in bone health vitamin D can lead to weak bones and an increased risk of fractures.

The recommended daily intake of vitamin D for adults is 600-800 IU per day. Sources of vitamin D include egg yolks, sunlight, fatty fish,and foods such as milk.

What Are The Treatments for Bone Pain?

Treatment for bone pain depends on the underlying cause. Mild cases of bone pain can be treated with rest, ice, and over-the-counter (drugs that do not require a doctor’s prescription) pain medications, such as acetaminophen, celecoxib, or ibuprofen. Adding physical therapy and chiropractic care as advised by your physician can also help relieve pain and improve mobility.

In more severe cases, prescription pain medications may be necessary. In cases of bone cancer or other serious conditions, treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Such medications may include;

  1. 1. Antibiotics

If you have a bone infection, your doctor may recommend strong medicines to get rid of the infection-causing bacteria. These antibiotics can be vancomycin, clindamycin, or ciprofloxacin.

2. Pain Reliever

Although they do not treat the underlying problem, painkillers are among the most frequently recommended drugs to lessen bone pain. You can utilize non prescription medications like ibuprofen, diclofenac, or acetaminophen. For moderate to severe pain, prescription drugs like morphine or pentazocine may be utilized.

3. Dietary supplements

Osteoporosis sufferers must raise their calcium and vitamin D levels. In order to cure the mineral shortage, your doctor will prescribe nutritional supplements. The form of supplements can be liquid, pill, or chewable.

4. Cancer therapies

Cancer-related bone pain is challenging to manage. To alleviate the pain, the doctor will need to focus on and treat cancer. Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are all frequently used cancer therapies (although chemotherapy might exacerbate bone pain). A class of drugs known as bisphosphonates aid those with metastatic bone cancer in preventing bone discomfort and destruction. Additionally, opiate painkillers may be prescribed (4).

5. Surgery

To remove bone fragments that have degenerated due to infection, surgery may be required. Resetting fractured bones and removing cancerous tumors may both need surgery. In severe cases where joints can be swapped or replaced, reconstructive surgery may be used.

Ways To Protect Yourself From Joint Pain

  1. 1. Keep your body at a healthy weight.

Being overweight harms your bones in addition to your cardiovascular system. Your joint can only withstand so much pressure. Joint discomfort results from excessive body weight because it places unneeded strain on the joints. Every 500 grams of excess weight you carry, according to the Arthritis Foundation, can put an additional 2 kilograms of pressure on your weight-bearing joints. Maintain a healthy weight, if possible. By exercising daily, you shed undesirable fat, keeping your weight within the recommended BMI.

  1. 2. Wear The Right Shoes.

We hardly ever think about the shoes we wear daily. When purchasing footwear, we prioritize trends over support and comfort. Another factor contributing to joint pain is the choice of footwear. Buy footwear that will protect your knees, ankles, and feet. Whenever you can, choose flat shoes instead than high heels. Inappropriate footwear can even cause back discomfort.

  1. 3. Consume Healthy Foods

Consuming foods rich in vitamins, minerals, and anti-inflammatory characteristics can assist to maintain the health of your bones. Studies that take into account alliums, a food category that includes leeks, onions, garlic, and chives, can lower your risk of developing bone pain. Also, calcium supplements should be a huge part of your everyday intake.


Bone pain can be a debilitating condition that affects many parts of the body, including the shoulder, lower back, tailbone, forearm, neck, and hand. The causes of bone pain can vary, from injury and overuse to degenerative conditions and cancer. Treatment for bone pain depends on the underlying cause, with options ranging from rest and ice to prescription pain medications, physical therapy, and surgery. Maintaining good bone health, including getting enough vitamin D, can help prevent bone pain and reduce the risk of fractures.



  1. 1. https://www.webmd.com/pain-management/bone-pain-what-know
  2. 2. https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/pain/index.htm
  3. 3. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_pain
  4. 4. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321835
  5. 5. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/bone-cancer/symptoms/
  6. 6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9060007/

Chiropractor For Arthritis

chiropractor for arthritis


An Overview Of The Health Benefits Of Chiropractic Care And Chiropractor For Arthritis

Chiropractors have long been recognized as a viable alternative for treating musculoskeletal conditions, including arthritis and joint pain. These medical professionals specialize in detecting and correcting misalignments in the spine, which can contribute to a wide range of physical ailments.

By manipulating and adjusting the musculoskeletal system, chiropractors aim to restore proper alignment and improve the function of the joints. Chiropractor for arthritis and joint pain is growing in popularity, as more patients seek out non-invasive, drug-free solutions to their chronic pain. With their gentle but effective techniques, chiropractic care can help patients find relief from even the most stubborn and debilitating conditions.

chiropractor for joints

However, therapy sessions in a chiropractic clinic are not limited to joint treatment alone, chiropractor jaw adjustment, and chiropractor electrical stimulation among others are other tasks performed by a licensed chiropractor. Chiropractors do not take the place of medical or surgical treatment, rather they complement them (1).

Who Is a Chiropractor?

Chiropractors are licensed practitioners that help in the management of health issues involving structures of the body. Chiropractors don’t deal with medicine nor perform surgical procedures, instead, they do body alignments involving the joints, spine, and other body areas to ensure their normal anatomical position and to reduce pain. Chiropractor education is centered around the fact that good body physiology is dependent on a well-positioned structure (2).


Two major systems a chiropractor deals with are the nervous and the musculoskeletal systems. Physicians recommend visits to a chiropractor for joints, spine, or other musculoskeletal problems.

The commonest reasons people see a chiropractor for adjustment are muscle pain, back pain, neck problems, and others. Patients can also consult a chiropractor for arthritis and other general joint issues such as pains in the jaw, shoulder, and elbows (1).

Chiropractor Education And Training

A lot of questions keep coming up as to the educational background of a licensed chiropractor, the training they received, certifications, and questions such as “are chiropractors real doctors”? The answers to these questions will be best explained below.

In the united states, to become a licensed chiropractor, one must have gone through a thorough education training of four years of degree courses to obtain a doctor of chiropractic certificate or degree.

Before anyone can practice in the united states, each of the states require that such a person must have sat for the chiropractic board examination and have a passed mark to obtain the license that will enable such a person to practice.

In the real sense, chiropractor education is a continuous learning process because it never really ends as there are new evolving techniques for joint and spine adjustment, as well as technological interventions (3).

The chiropractic educational requirement includes the:

  • – The full program spans four years, the first two years are meant for basic sciences courses after which the students will sit for the part1 professional board exam and one must be successful in this examination before proceeding to the next level
  • – The last two of the four years are for purely clinical training and the part 2 professional board exams come shortly after of which the student must be successful to sit for the part 3 examination
  • – Part 3 professional exam is mandatory for chiropractors that will make use of physiological therapeutics in the course of their practice as chiropractors.
  • – Part 4 examination tests clinical and practical skills only and these include the ability to use diagnostic imaging, management of cases, and most importantly how effective one can apply the chiropractic techniques acquired so far.
  • – After graduation from college, in order to become a licensed chiropractor, there is a mandatory one-year internship that should be done in an accredited clinic for that purpose (4).

Are Chiropractors Real Doctors?

Without mincing words, chiropractors are doctors, they earn a degree in doctor of chiropractic medicine. However not have a medical doctorate (M.D.). several countries including the united states will only allow a licensed chiropractor after obtaining the degree of doctor of chiropractic medicine to practice in the country.

Chiropractors do not perform the duties of a medical doctor and they are not alternatives to orthodox medicine, but they rather complement the works of medical doctors. They diagnose and manage conditions in their areas of interest but are not licensed to prescribe drugs (5).

What Does a Chiropractor Do?

A chiropractor specializes in treating musculoskeletal and spine problems such as muscle aches, joint pains, and back pains from spine misalignment. Therefore, anyone with health challenges revolving around the above areas can consult a chiropractor and the treatment is without the use of drugs or surgery.

Some of the treatment options by a chiropractor are below:

  • – Adjustments: For joint pains, dislocation, arthritis, falls, and others. A chiropractor will work on joint alignment to help relieve pain and improve function.
  • – Tissue therapy: The type of tissues a chiropractor works on are the soft tissues like the muscles and connective tissues. They work by helping to reduce pain and tension in these tissues thereby making the patient feel better
  • – Exercises: The major type of exercise the chiropractor recommends is stretches. This type of exercise help to improve the mobility of joints.
  • – Bracing: Braces are accessories used to improve stability affected by a faulty joint. With the use of braces, the chiropractor is aiming at improving joint function.
  • – Referral: For every patient that visits the chiropractor for arthritis or joint diseases. One of the duties of a chiropractor is to refer patients that require the expertise of the other physician appropriately (1).

Chiropractor And Acupuncture

When discussing holistic practice in medicine, people often mistake chiropractors and acupuncture to be the same entity or practice in medicine. Although they are both noninvasive means of treating patients especially to relieve pain, they still have first-hand differences in how they operate.

The majority of their work is centered around the nervous system and the musculoskeletal system but contrary to what people believe, there are quite several distinctions between the two practices.

Unlike chiropractors limited to majorly the musculoskeletal system, acupuncture helps to promote healing in more diverse ways. Acupuncture has been traced to be useful in helping to relieve stress in infertile couples, alleviating symptoms in post-menopausal women, and treatment of addictions as in individuals who smoke.

Although both are referred to as noninvasive treatment methods, however, in acupuncture, acupuncturists are trained on how to effectively use needles along the energy lines of the body that has been believed to connect the health of a person at one point.

While chiropractic medicine is seen as complementary care for people, acupuncture is an alternative kind of treatment when individuals are trying to avoid medicine and surgery, it is a far less invasive technique that deals with even chronic pain in people.

The procedure for chiropractic medicine is less painful compared to acupuncture which requires needle insertion, and this needle insertion can be much more painful especially if it is not carried out by an expert or an experienced acupuncturist (6).

Benefits Of Choosing Chiropractor And Acupuncture As Dual Treatment Measures

Studies have revealed that using these treatment options together provides more synergistic health benefits than when they are being used isolatedly or individually.

For instance, while a chiropractor is working hard to enhance adjustment along the spine to correct subluxation in a patient, an acupuncturist is looking at how he can insert his needle at targeted areas to remove barriers causing imbalances in the body. This is how they both function to bring about their individual effects. Using them synergistically means that they are both working in their respective ways to achieve the same result of correcting subluxation in a patient and aiding healing.

Medical Conditions Chiropractor And Acupuncture Can Function Together

Both acupuncture and chiropractic medicine can work together to aid better outcomes in the individual medical condition where they are isolatedly needed. Some common examples of such conditions are:

  • – Neck pain
  • – Back pain
  • – Migraine
  • – Sciatica
  • – Arthritis
  • – Others are sports injury, difficulty sleeping at night, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension (7).

Chiropractor vs Massage

The majority of patients often ask to know who is better to be seen between a chiropractor and a massage therapist. Many people seem to get confused because looking at both peripherally, they have similar functions but, they are indeed different in function when studied deeply. Read further to understand what each of the does and to know if you see a chiropractor or massage first.

When To Consult a Chiropractor

One of the best times to consult a chiropractor is when you are experiencing chronic pain, especially pain starting to affect your mobility or causing gradual loss or reduction of function. Such include neck pain, lower back pain, and joint pain among others (8).

Chiropractor Or Massage First? Which Is The Best?

There have been several questions as to whether to visit a chiropractor first before going to the massage therapist or to go a body massage first before chiropractic care. There is no express answer as to which of these should be done because both are beneficial either way. Hence, it is best to discuss the pros and cons of either situation.

  • – Chiropractic care before a massage

Going for a chiropractic adjustment before a massage gives the chiropractor first-hand information and the ability to have a more workable diagnosis for a physical examination of the body, thus, giving room for better chiropractic care.

After chiropractic care, the body joints, connective tissues, muscles, and the spine would have been well adjusted and aligned allowing good flexibility of the body. Therefore, going for a massage after such chiropractic care allows the body to thoroughly enjoy the massage process and absorb it better.

  • – Chiropractic care after a massage

On the other hand, very stiff body muscles and structures may not have the full benefit from chiropractic care. The such body will benefit more from doing a massage first before visiting the chiropractor as the body is better relaxed for the chiropractor to also work with.

Also, individuals visiting a chiropractor for the first time are advised to go for a massage first to help relieve their anxiety about chiropractic care.

From the above points, there is no direct answer as to whether a chiropractor or massage first as both have benefits attached to them (9).

However, studies have revealed that one should go directly to a chiropractor if confused about who to see first, the reason being that chiropractors are well-trained to diagnose and refer cases to other practitioners. Hence, a chiropractor can also help to decide when it is best to see the massage therapist (8).

Benefits Of Chiropractic Care And Chiropractor For Arthritis

There are several health benefits of chiropractic care today. Below are a few of them:

  • 1. Improves neck pain

Neck pain is commonly seen these days among corporate workers and this has been traced to sitting for a long duration of time in a day and frequent bending of the neck as a result of adopted poor posture. A chiropractor for joints will work effectively on adjusting and aligning joints around the neck to help relieve the pain.

arthritis facts

A study carried out in 2012 revealed that chiropractic care for spine adjustment among over 272 adults came out to be very effective compared to when drugs are been prescribed to treat the pains within a space of three months.

  • 2. Improves back pain

The majority of lower back pains felt in adults, in both genders have been traced to issues affecting the spine. Therefore a chiropractor for joint adjustment might be a good deal in these cases as a treatment measure for back pain.

Physicians in America often encourage their patients and clients to seek nonmedical means and lifestyle modification ways of improving back pain before settling for medications and surgery. Fortunately, one of the most effective means is chiropractic care. A consult with a chiropractor and acupuncture therapy are good options.

  • 3. Management of osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis has been traced to tear and wear occurring at a joint resulting in degenerative changes of the cartilage. A chiropractor for arthritis care will help in the treatment of osteoarthritis by aiding adjustments at the affected joints. Studies also reveal that good chiropractic care will help to reduce the speed of progression of arthritis in affected patients.

  • 4. Management of headache

Spine alignment by chiropractors has proven to be effective in the treatment of headaches whose pain radiated to the neck. Examples of such are migraine headaches and tension headaches (10).

  • 5. Jaw adjustment

The jaw is one of the head and neck structures made up of bones and joints that functions together to enable one to chew, speak, and also take part in the movement of the head. Excessive stress often manifests sometimes as jaw pain.

A chiropractor jaw adjustment works by realigning the temporomandibular joint by ensuring that the condyles are in the right places and well lined up. The main goal of the chiropractor jaw adjustment is to relieve pain in the jaw and to do this in time because of the delicate nature of the functions of the jaw (11).

  • 6. Maintaining good posture

Can chiropractors help with posture? Yes, they can. Good chiropractic care is suitable for readjustment in certain kinds of posture. Examples of such are scoliosis, kyphosis, unleveled pelvis, and high shoulder (12).

Good chiropractic care will help to improve poor posture especially posture affiliated with neck pain and traceable to sitting for a long period each day. And a regular visit to a chiropractor for posture correction is not limited to just correcting the posture, it also helps to improve the quality of life (10).

  • 7. Management of sciatica

Sciatica is medical terminology describing the pain felt as a result of pinching of the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve took its course from the lower back down to the legs, hence a pinch to the nerve will manifest as pain along its course of travel.

Can chiropractor make sciatica worse? This is a controversial question as there have been several studies looking to encourage or cancel the use of chiropractic care in the management of a patient with sciatica.

A study done in 2015 encouraged the use of chiropractic care in all back pains including sciatica and such patients were found to have more relief with no harm done to them compared to when they visit only a physician.

The study further revealed that chiropractic care didn’t cause the pain to progress or worsen than it, which supported that chiropractic care does not make sciatica worse if done rightly, especially on the recommendation of a physician. (13,14).

  • 8. Improves pinched nerves

A pinched nerve occurs when there is nerve compression by tissues surrounding the nerve such as vertebrae and soft tissues compressing on nerves around the spine. An inflamed soft tissue can also cause direct compression on its supplying nerves.

Can chiropractor fix pinched nerve? Yes, a chiropractor can fix a pinched nerve through manual adjustment and alignment of the surrounding bones, joints, and tissues compressing on the nerve. Although spine surgery can help in some cases that is with a high likelihood of side effects than chiropractic care. Hence, it is best to consult a chiropractor to fix a pinched nerve (15).

  • 9. Chiropractor electrical stimulation

Chiropractor electrical nerve stimulation is otherwise referred to as E-stim. E-stim is a muscle stimulation method that works on the muscle and surrounding soft tissues to help accelerate recovery processes, especially from pain, inflammatory processes, and poor muscle tone.

The chiropractor electrical stimulation sends electric signals to nerve endings at injury sites, causing them to be stimulated and enhancing the free flow of blood to the site which is necessary for the healing of tissues to take place (16).


Chiropractors are licensed healthcare professionals who specialize in the musculoskeletal system, primarily the spinal column. They offer a non-invasive and holistic approach to addressing various ailments, including rheumatoid arthritis and various other type of arthritis. These forms of arthritis are characterized by inflammation, stiffness, and pain, primarily in the joints.

By realigning the spinal column and ensuring proper nervous system function, chiropractors can help reduce inflammation and relieve arthritis symptoms. Moreover, their way of treating patients is safe and natural, unlike medications, which may have side effects.

The chiropractic treatment for arthritis involves not only spinal adjustments but also adjusting other joints affected by the disease. This approach helps to minimize the progression of the disease and helps improve joint mobility. A visit to the chiropractor for joints is best done at the onset of arthritis symptoms to prevent the disease from becoming more advanced. Overall, a chiropractor for arthritis is a valuable resource for managing the disease and improving one’s quality of life.



  1. 1. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/treatments/21033-chiropractic-adjustment
  2. 2. https://www.healthgrades.com/right-care/chiropractic-care/8-things-that-can-be-treated-by-a-chiropractor
  3. 3. https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-is-chiropractor
  4. 4. https://www.spine-health.com/treatment/chiropractic/chiropractor-educational-requirements
  5. 5. https://www.bridgeport.edu/news/are-chiropractors-doctors/#:~:text=Yes%2C+chiropractors+are+doctors+of,diagnose+and+treat+musculoskeletal+conditions.
  6. 6. https://www.drtimerickson.com/the-benefits-of-using-chiropractic-and-acupuncture-together/#:~:text=Both+chiropractic+and+acupuncture+work,which+leads+to+optimum+health.
  7. 7. https://www.westtexaschiropractic.com/chiropractic-vs-acupuncture/
  8. 8. https://www.movementhealth.ca/chiropractor-vs-massage-therapist-which-is-better/
  9. 9. https://equilibriummassagetherapy.ca/chiropractor-and-massage/
  10. 10. https://www.healthline.com/health/chiropractic-benefits#10-benefits
  11. 11. https://debolechiro.com/blog/chiropractic-jaw-realignment/#:~:text=A+jaw+realignment+refers+to,up+correctly+with+one+another.
  12. 12. https://thetaylordocs.com/can-a-chiropractor-help-improve-my-posture/#:~:text=A+chiropractor+can+help+you,the+body+is+functioning+optimally.
  13. 13. https://stanleychiro.com/can-a-chiropractor-make-sciatica-worse/
  14. 14. https://www.healthline.com/health/back-pain/chiropractor-for-sciatica#chiropractic-and-sciatica
  15. 15. https://tristateclinic.com/2021/03/10/what-causes-a-pinched-nerve-how-chiropractic-can-help/#:~:text=A+chiropractor+can+use+adjustments,otherwise+lead+to+side+effects.
  16. 16. https://chirohealthkc.com/chiropractic-care-and-e-stim-treatment-when-is-it-right-for-you/

3-Day Detox Diet

3-day detox diet


Detoxification: Liver And Scalp Detoxification, Detox With Epsom Salt, 3-Day Detox Diet

Detoxification, commonly known as detox, is the process of removing harmful substances or toxins from the body. This process can occur naturally as the body filters toxins through organs like the liver, kidneys, and skin. However, detox can also refer to specific interventions or programs designed to support the body’s natural detoxification processes and eliminate harmful substances.

Detox programs may involve dietary changes, fasting, or the use of supplements, herbs, or other treatments to support liver and kidney function, promote sweating or bowel movements, and aid in the elimination of toxins. This is what cleanse the liver and other organs. Some people use detox programs to address specific health concerns or conditions, such as alcohol or drug addiction, while others may use them as a way to improve overall health and wellness. In this article, we will discuss the liver, scalp, and how to detox the liver naturally.

What is The Function Of The Liver

The liver is the second largest organ in the body that regulates the most chemical in the blood and produces a product called bile. This aids transport away waste products from the liver. Blood from the stomach and intestines passes via the liver (1). The liver processes break down and balance nutrients to be absorbed into the bloodstream. Another very important function of the liver is that it metabolizes drugs into the smallest forms which makes them easy and nontoxic to use. There are over 500 vital functions the liver Carries out in the body. Here are some of the common functions you should know about, they include;

  • – Converting excess glucose into glycogen for storage (when energy is low, the stored glycogen is later converted to glucose for energy) and making glucose as needed
  • – Production of bile, which aids in transporting waste products away from the liver. During digestion, it aids in the breaking down of ingested fats in the small intestine.
  • – Responsible for processing hemoglobin for its iron content use.
  • – Production of special proteins and cholesterol to help carry fats in the body.
  • – The liver helps regulate amino acids in the blood that forms a building block of proteins.
  • – Production of some proteins for blood plasma
  • – It helps convert poisonous ammonia to urea, an end product of protein metabolism that is excreted in the urine.
  • – The liver helps in regulating blood clotting.
  • – Helps the blood by clearing out drugs and other poisonous substances.
  • – Clears bilirubin from red blood cells because the excess accumulation of bilirubin, causes the eyes and skin to turn yellow.
  • – The liver helps fight against infections by creating immune factors and eliminating bacteria from the bloodstream.

What Disorders and Conditions Affect The Liver?

Several conditions can affect the liver. Here are the most common ones;

  • – Diseases that occur due to the consumption of too many toxins, such as fatty liver disease and alcohol-related liver disease.
  • – Cancer of the liver, which occurs when abnormal cells grow too quickly.
  • – Inherited diseases like iron overload (hemochromatosis) and Wilson disease( excess copper in the body).
  • – Autoimmune diseases, whereby the immune system attacks the liver. Examples are primary biliary cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis.
  • – Viral infections like hepatitis A, B, and C

Several of these conditions leads to scarring of the liver, also known as Cirrhosis. Diseases of the liver can cause severe symptoms and even become life-threatening. Sometimes, damaged liver tissue regenerates.

What is a Liver Detox?

A liver detox, or cleanse plus is a popular process that is said to eliminate harmful toxins from your body, promote weight loss, and enhance overall health. However, it’s important to understand that how detox liver naturally have limited benefits.

The liver is a vital organ that plays a crucial role in filtering toxins, processing nutrients, and metabolizing medications. While some people may turn to a liver cleanse after consuming alcohol or unhealthy foods, others may view it as a way to improve liver function or manage the liver disease. Detox One is a very common detox product used to flush toxins and aid in weight loss.

There is little evidence to support the effectiveness of liver detox programs. Rather than relying on a liver cleanse, it’s best to adopt healthy lifestyle habits such as eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and avoiding excessive alcohol consumption to support liver health.

Epsom Salt For Detoxification

Epsom salt, also known as magnesium sulfate, is a type of salt that has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for various health conditions, including muscle aches, stress, and constipation. How to detox liver naturally is what majority of people are searching for.

Some people also detox with Epsom salt as part of a detox program to help eliminate toxins from the body (2).

Dissolved Epsom salt in warm water releases magnesium and sulfate ions, which can be absorbed through the skin. Some people believe that this can help to improve circulation, promote relaxation, and aid in the elimination of toxins from the body.

To use Epsom salt as part of a how-to detox naturally, you can add it to a warm bath and soak it for 20-30 minutes. It’s important to drink plenty of water before and after the bath to stay hydrated and support the elimination of toxins from the body. Detox with Epsom salt baths may offer some benefits, but there is limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness as a detox tool.

It’s important to remember that the liver and kidneys are the primary organs responsible for filtering toxins from the body. The Function of your kidneys is to filter blood and remove waste and water to make urine while the liver converts toxins into substances and ensures they are excreted from the body. These are exactly how the body removes toxins from the body and not whether you drink green tea for detoxification or not.

Side Effect of Epsom Salt

Generally, Epsom salts are safe but should be taken with caution in pregnancy, breastfeeding, with people with kidney disease, and with children. Overdosing is rare but serious side effects you may experience include blurry vision, dizziness, muscle weakness, and extreme fatigue.

Other Ways To Improve Liver Health

Some simple strategies that can reduce the risk of liver disease and help the liver rid the body of toxins include;

  • – Limit Your Alcohol Intake: Excessive consumption of alcohol is a major risk factor for developing liver disease.
  • – Always Rinse Your Greens and Fruits: This can ensure they are free of pesticides.
  • – Choose A Reputable Piercing salon: Ensure you choose a salon that sterilizes its equipment. Unsterilized instruments can be unsafe and transfer the hepatitis virus.
  • – Avoid Self Medicating With Over-the-counter Medications: Do not exceed the recommended dose for OTC medications like acetaminophen that can harm the liver. Also, do not combine alcohol and over-the-counter drugs.
  • – Get the appropriate and complete hepatitis A, and B vaccination, especially before traveling overseas.
  • – Practice Safe Sex: Practicing safe sex reduces your ability and risk of contracting diseases that affect your liver. Go for routine checkups for sexually transmitted diseases.
  • – Drinking plenty of water.
  • – Avoid Potentially Dangerous Chemicals: Always wear a face mask when using pesticides or painting and keep the area properly ventilated.

A 3-Day Detox Diet

In 3-day detox diet, antioxidant-rich foods are consumed more often while toxins and sugar are restricted. This includes regular consumption of smoothies made from fruits and vegetables which can be prepared quickly and in bulk. A 3-day detox diet should also include plenty of water to aid your body flush out toxins. Another important factor in 3-day detox diet is having plenty of sleep to strengthen the immune system and renewal process of your body (5).

Regular, light exercise improves health and lowers stress, but stay away from anything too demanding. It is sufficient to do yoga, swim or go for a brisk walk regularly. A 3-day detox diet is ideal since it gives the body just enough time to rest.

Even though these diets are high in vitamins, fiber, proteins, and minerals, they may not provide all the classes of food and so you should not continue for the long term. Nevertheless, there are some lifestyle modifications you can continue with, such as drinking lots of water, smoothies, and exercising.

A 3-Day Detox Diet Plan

Try out this mapped-out 3 days detox diet and you will notice significant changes in your body.

  • – Morning

Before anything else, begin your day with a slight exercise. Perform a short gentle yoga practice for about 5 to 10 minutes to help you feel energized and get your blood flowing throughout the day. Follow this with the morning smoothie above, which is rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and protein to help fill you up.


  • – Mid-Morning

Try a cup of green tea instead of reaching for a cup of coffee as you would usually do. This is because the strong antioxidant properties in green tea help the cleansing process even further. If you don’t like the flavor, add a few drops of lemon juice to make it more tolerable, and then consume as many cups as you need during the day.


  • – Lunch and Snacks

It’s crucial to eat during your lunch break and also important that you get up and move from your desk to help re-energize the body. Your light lunch smoothie should be packed with healthy fats and fiber. Prepare fresh snacks in advance to prevent any mid-afternoon hunger feelings. Cucumber, celery, and carrot sticks can be helpful, or you can choose another smoothie from the list above. A small snack will increase energy and concentration while helping to regulate your appetite.


  • – Dinner

To make sure your body gets everything it needs, this evening smoothie provides distinct nutrients from the morning and lunchtime smoothies. Additionally, they provide three extremely distinct flavors to prevent boredom.

  • – Sleep time

The body can fight against stress, weight gain, and low energy levels with the aid of a good night’s sleep. Avoid using technology for an hour before night so that you can rest your body and mind with a soothing bath or shower, or chamomile.

Scalp Detox

Scalp detox, often referred to as deep scalp cleanse, entails massaging your scalp while using an exfoliating oil or scrub to help to clear out clogged pores, and wash away built up product already formed in hair follicles. It is just like having a facial. Even if you wash your face twice daily, you should occasionally give it a deep clean. Your scalp is the same way. Even if you wash your hair every day, your scalp will occasionally require a deep cleaning treatment.

For healthy hair, it’s crucial to keep your scalp clean. It’s similar to building the groundwork for your hair’s overall health by taking care of the surroundings (4).

For healthy hair, it’s crucial to keep your scalp clean and detoxed. By taking care of the environment where your hair grows, you’re building the groundwork for its general health. Additionally, you’re avoiding several other major hair issues from developing, such as scalp itching and irritation brought on by dirt and product buildup.

The state of your scalp and hair, as well as your habits and lifestyle, are a few key criteria that will determine how frequently you should deep wash your scalp. If you’re hoping for a more broad response, the majority of specialists advise doing it every four to six weeks or at least once every month.


A liver detox is a crucial step towards attaining optimal health. A 3-day detox diet is an effective way to cleanse the liver and remove the buildup of toxins. In addition to this, there are various ways to detox the liver naturally, including the use of herbal tea, epsom salt, and fresh juice.

A typical detox plan includes a meal plan that consists of healthy, whole foods such as leafy greens, fruits, and vegetables. Drinking a glass of water with lemon first thing in the morning is also a great way to stimulate the liver’s detoxification process. Additionally, eating an avocado daily is an excellent source of healthy fats, which can help support the liver’s natural ability to detoxify. Incorporating the 3-day cleanse into your routine is one of the best ways to reset and restore the liver’s health while enhancing overall well-being.

In essence, detoxification is an important routine that should be performed often. The liver is not only the organ that needs to be detoxified. The skin and scalp form the largest organ in the body it requires massaging the scalp with a brush or an exfoliating scrub to remove dead skin cells, open up your scalp’s pores, and remove product accumulation from the hair follicles. There is more to a scalp cleanse than just shampoo. It is always a good idea to speak with a healthcare provider before starting any new detox program or making significant changes to your diet or lifestyle.



  1. 1. https://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/picture-of-the-liver
  2. 2. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/321627#takeaway
  3. 3. https://www.vogue.com/slideshow/why-a-scalp-detox-is-the-key-to-a-good-hair-day


  1. 5. https://www.webmd.com/diet/a-z/fruit-flush-diet

Muscle Building For Beginners

muscle building for beginners


Muscle Building For Beginners: Proven Ways

Muscle building for beginners is both exciting and challenging. It requires careful planning and dedication towards a goal of building muscle mass whilst maintaining a healthy weight. A sensible build muscle and lose fat diet plan is essential for those interested in obtaining quick results. The build muscle lose weight process may be difficult, but it should not be achieved at the expense of one’s health.

Beginners will need the correct build muscle nutrition which includes the correct blend of carbs, proteins, and healthy fats. Balancing calorie intake is also important while trying to build muscle for beginners. A calculated build muscle diet plan can provide the body with the necessary nutrients to help build muscle while losing fat at the same time.

build muscle for beginners

It is recommended that beginners incorporate a mix of resistance training and cardio into their workouts, as it can help achieve muscle building while losing fat. A steady approach to building muscle for beginners will prevent injury and create a sustainable routine for continued success.

Having a fit body is everyone’s goal. Whether you are trying to lose weight or gain weight, it’s all up to you. Let’s be honest, a well-built body makes you look admirable, and healthy and commands respect. This is why you hit the gym, adjust your meal plan, and lift more weight. Building muscle can be tricky and this is why we will discuss why you should build muscle while losing fat, your build muscle diet plan, and generally muscle building for beginners.

How Do Muscles Work?

Muscles are complex structures that allow your body to move and perform a wide range of activities. Muscles work by contracting and relaxing. They are made up of many individual muscle fibers, which are connected to the bones by tendons. When a muscle contracts, the fibers shorten and pull on the tendons, which in turn pull on the bones, causing movement (3).

Muscle contraction is triggered by the interaction of two proteins called actin and myosin. Myosin filaments slide over the actin filaments, causing the muscle fibers to shorten and contract. This process requires energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is produced by the body’s metabolic processes.

The nervous system plays a key role in muscle function. Nerve impulses travel from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, telling them when to contract and how much force to exert. The speed and strength of muscle contractions can be controlled by the nervous system (1).

Muscles can also work in concert with one another to produce coordinated movements. For example, when you bend your elbow, your biceps muscle contracts to lift the forearm, while the triceps muscle relaxes. When you straighten your arm, the opposite happens, with the triceps contracting and the biceps.

Muscle Building For Beginners: Three Powerful Methods

To be able to build muscle for beginners, your muscle cells need to grow. This is known as muscle hypertrophy, a process where muscle mass is gained is gained through focused exercise. Here are some of the ways you can build muscle and lose fat as muscle building for beginners:

1. Resistance Training

Resistance training is the primary and effective way to build muscle mass. It involves using your body weight, external weights, resistance bands, or machines to stress your muscles, pushing them beyond their limits by forcing them to work against external resistance. When you perform resistance exercises, your muscle fibers are broken down and then repaired and strengthened during the recovery period. Over time, you will notice results in an increase in muscle mass.

Strength training puts force on your muscles, causing metabolic stress, which gives your muscles the energy they require to acclimate to the stress of the weight so you can keep lifting. Pushing your muscles over their point of fatigue causes damage to your muscle fibers. This damaged muscle is what triggers the healing process that activates your muscle growth.

It is also important to know your one-repetition maximum (RM) if you want to grow your muscles. This is the heaviest weight you can lift without compromising properly. You are not at your RM if you can do three sets of 10 repetitions (reps) with ease. You can determine your one-repetition limit by talking to a personal trainer.

Here are some types of resistance exercises that can help you build muscle mass:

  1. a) Weightlifting

A weightlifting is a popular form of muscle-building resistance training that involves lifting weights. It is an excellent way to build muscle mass, particularly when using heavy weights that challenge your muscles. A higher stimulation must be applied to the muscle to encourage muscular growth or hypertrophy. You will be able to significantly advance both your strength and muscular increases once you can achieve this mental paradigm shift.

  1. b) Body-weight Exercises

Bodyweight exercises, such as push-ups and lunges, are excellent ways to build muscle lose weight without needing any equipment. These exercises can be modified to increase resistance and difficulty, such as by adding weight vests or using resistance bands. Adding squat and dumbbell to your gym regimen will only help with muscle gain. A full-body muscle and strength workout program is an excellent start to build muscle and strength while losing fat.

  1. c) Resistance Band Exercises

Resistance bands are an affordable and portable option for resistance training. They come in a range of strengths and can be used for a variety of exercises to build muscle for beginners.

resistance bands to build muscle

  1. d) Calisthenics

Calisthenics is a form of bodyweight exercise that involves using your body weight as resistance. Calisthenics exercises, such as pull-ups, dips, and handstands, can help build muscle mass while also improving your overall strength and mobility.

Note that it is important to include a variety of exercises that target different muscle groups. Aim to incorporate compound exercises, which work for multiple muscle groups at once, as well as isolation exercises, which target specific muscle groups. Additionally, it’s important to progressively overload your muscles by gradually increasing the weight or resistance you use over time. Consistency is also essential for building muscle mass.

Another way to build muscle while losing fat is through yoga. Yoga is an amazing way to exercise as it increases endurance, flexibility, and strength, while on low maintenance. Since one of the ways people build and train muscles is through mechanical damage whilst lifting weights, you can also achieve the same effect with yoga.

According to a study carried out in 2014, it showed that you can use yoga to cause mechanical damage by holding your poses for longer (4). This concept involves lifting heavy weights which causes stress on muscle fibers, causing microscopic tears. When these tears heal, your muscle increases in size. In yoga, pushing your body towards fatigue, causes your muscle fibers to stretch and divide as they heal, causing muscle growth.

2. Nutrition

To be able to gain muscle mass, your diet must contain the right number of calories and nutrients, especially protein. Doing so will encourage the synthesis of new muscle proteins from the nutritional protein you consume, which is produced by your weight-training efforts.

There’s a phase called bulking and cutting phase. This is the period you consume more food than your body burns to support muscle growth, while on the other hand, cutting is done to reduce body fat by cutting down on calorie intake. All these are done while training and eating to avoid losing muscle. During a bulking phase, the major objective of your diet should be to give your body the nutrition it needs to grow without overfeeding it with calories that cause you to build more fat than muscle.

build muscle diet plan

A sweet spot, when your body creates muscle without storing a lot of fat, usually occurs when you consume 300–500 extra calories. While some minor fat gains do seem to happen during bulking phases. Beyond the rate at which your body can create the most amount of muscle, extra calories will be very beneficial.

Compared to other life goals, building muscle to lose weight is surprisingly easy. This doesn’t mean it will come easily and quickly. It just means you are sure of getting results if you keep at it.

Gaining a lot of muscles takes several months and years of eating the right diet and weight training. The rate at which you build muscle nutrition and gain weight varies by individual even when the same routine is followed.

Generally, with a rich diet and consistent training, research has shown that you can gain about 0.25- 0.9kg weight per month, which is a good overall benchmark for optimum muscle growth (5). To some individuals, this may seem like little progress, but over time, the result could be mind-blowing. After a few years of consistent training, you can gain up to 9-18kg of muscle. This could be a total physique change for anyone starting a resistance training program.

How Much Protein Should You Consume?

Typically, you should consume at least 1g of per pound of your body weight. Proteins are important because amino acids serve as the building blocks of muscle protein, which are provided by the protein you consume.

Although the average person’s recommended daily protein intake is less than half a gram per pound of body weight, research indicates that athletes, particularly those concerned with muscle building and strength, require nearly twice that amount daily.

To get the most results from your workouts, beginners should aim to ingest 1.5 grams of protein per pound of body weight every day for the first six months of exercising.

Another important part of your diet is fat. Your daily caloric intake should contain 20%–30% of fat. Ensure that about 5%–10% of your fat calories is saturated, as opposed to the advice given to the sedentary general population, as higher-fat diets maintains testosterone levels better than when you consume low-fat diets. Don’t forget that maintaining adequate testosterone levels is essential for increasing muscle growth and strength and preventing fat accumulation.

Select lean meats like ground beef and steak for your saturated fats (these also contain high-quality protein); olive oil, olives, avocados, and peanut butter and fatty fish (trout, salmon, catfish), flaxseed oil, and walnuts for your essential, omega-3 polyunsaturated fats.

3. Rest

When gaining muscle, it’s crucial to give your body time to heal. Before exercising your muscles again, you should give them about 48 hours of recovery.

To gain muscle, you also need to get enough sleep. While you sleep, a number of things go into place, including muscle growth and restoration. Lack of sleep causes your body to release catabolic hormones like cortisol, which inhibits the creation of new muscles (6). Normally an average adult sleeps for 7-9 hours per night (7), but when trying to gain muscles, you should aim for at least eight hours of sleep. Getting enough sleep keeps anabolic hormone levels high, which helps with recuperation and muscle growth.

Muscle Building For Beginners: Useful Tips

  1. 1. Take Pre-workouts; Consuming Pre-workouts helps you optimize your workout routine and helps to prolong your workout duration. They are powdered substances mixed in water and consumed before carrying out an exercise. It is usually taken to boost energy, endurance, and focus during a workout. Pre-workouts are especially needed to increase blood flow, oxygen, and nutrient in the body.
  2. 2. Warm up for five to ten minutes with aerobic activity, such as brisk walking or stretching. By doing this, you’ll be able to exercise without damaging your muscles.
  3. 3. Start light with just 1- or 2-pound weights. Do not overwork yourself too early. Since you are still raising the weight of your arms and legs, you might even attempt performing strength training exercises without any weight at first.
  4. 4. Ease into your exercises. progressively increase your weight and avoid trying to lift too much too soon. It will only lead to injury. Having said that, you won’t see improvements if you don’t challenge your muscles. Lift weights that cause your muscles to weary after 12 to 15 repetitions.
  5. 5. Lift the weights slowly and deliberately. Avoid swinging too much weight to prevent jerky movements at your joints. This may cause joint dislocation if care is not taken.
  6. 6. Throughout your workout, keep breathing. As you lift or push a weight, exhale. Relax when you take a breath.
  7. 7. You will experience some muscle stiffness and exhaustion for a few days. That is normal as your body will eventually adjust. Note that if you’re extremely sore and worn out, it may mean that you’re doing too much.
  8. 8. Include cardio in your daily exercise regimen. Running and swimming are aerobic workouts that can aid in muscle growth if done at the proper intensity, duration, and regularity.

As earlier stated, Consume a balanced diet that contains enough protein. Through the use of specific amino acids like leucine, these foods will support your exercises and aid in muscle growth. The majority of protein comes from animal sources, but vegetable sources are equally enough.



  1. 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068252/
  2. 2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306987711001800?via%3Dihub
  3. 3. https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/building-better-muscle
  4. 4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24519446/
  5. 5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068252/


7. https://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/a-0905-3103

What Are The Causes Of Muscle Pain?

causes of muscle pain


Muscle Pain: General Overview, Causes Of Muscle Pain And Treatment

Muscle pain medically referred to as myalgia, often manifest as a sign of an ongoing medical condition, illness, infection, or even a mild injury. Muscle pain can be generalized, that is muscle pain all over body, and it can be localized to only certain parts of the body, for instance, muscle pain back of thigh from prolonged standing. All over the world, everyone must have experienced muscle pain at one time or the other, although based on different etiologies (1).

Muscle pain is not age specific, therefore, it can be seen in children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. Most times, muscle pain and aches are not to be worried about and the doctor will only recommend rest or mild analgesics because the pain will resolve spontaneously.

However, in some instances, muscle pain may be a manifestation of certain diseases such as muscle pain behind knee which can be a symptom or a radiating pain from lumbar spondylosis, or osteoarthritis of the spine (2). There are various causes of muscle pain ranging from muscle soreness, strain, medication, and poor diet. Muscle pain causes a disruption in your daily activities both at home and work. This article discusses causes of muscle pain in different parts of the body and their treatment.

What Are The Possible Causes Of Muscle Pain?

The causes of muscle pain vary, muscle pain which can be localized or generalized has different causes responsible for each. This section will focus on discussing the general causes of muscle pain. These are:

  • – Muscle strain

Muscle sprain results mostly from injuries or muscle overuse, and it is the commonest cause of muscle pain. A muscle tissue can get strained after a stressful exercise or a sudden unexpected movement across a joint, this is commonly referred to as pulled muscle in layman’s terminology.

muscle pain back of thigh

Muscle strain is simply defined as pain resulting from an injury affecting the tendons. That is, tissue connecting muscles to bone, or injury affecting the muscles directly. This can either be minor or major. When it is a major muscle strain, it causes the muscle to tear apart. Muscle pain from overuse or strain can also be complicated by swelling or edema (3).

  • – Nutritional deficit

Muscle pain can also result from a poor diet. Insufficient nutrients in diet manifest in so many ways, and one of the clinical signs can be muscle pain and generalized body weakness. Vitamin D is one of the important nutrients the body needs to grow and function well, especially the musculoskeletal system.

Vitamin D is responsible for calcium absorption, so a deficiency of vitamin D in the body can also lead to a low level of calcium termed hypocalcemia, which in turn can affect the muscles, bones, and even internal organs. What causes muscle pain in the legs at times is traceable to vitamin D deficiency.

  • – Dehydration

Dehydration occurs due to inadequate fluids in the body, which can occur from inadequate water intake, vomiting, diarrhea, working under the sun, and lots more. Drinking an adequate volume of water is required to enable the body to function appropriately. Muscle pain from dehydration results when there are inadequate fluids in the body to nourish the muscular tissues.

It is important to be conscious of adequate fluid intake daily, and medical experts however recommend intake of six to eight glasses of water daily, and this should be the least for manual laborers that work under the sun (2).

  • – Inadequate flow of blood

People who frequently complain of muscle pain back of thigh, or muscle pain in the arms may be experiencing what is called intermittent claudication. This results from the low flow of blood to the distal parts of the body, from arteriosclerosis. Initially, it may be occurring on exertion but as time goes on, it can also occur at rest as the condition worsens and insufficient blood is reaching the muscles.

  • – Chronic fatigue syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a progressive chronic tiredness occurring for a long period, unexplained by any other cause. However, adequate rest makes it better over time.

Muscle pain all over body, muscle pain behind knee, and muscle pain back of thigh are all traceable to chronic fatigue syndrome. There is no definitive treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome, it can however be treated symptomatically (4).

  • – Bad posture

Poor body posture is another cause of chronic muscle pain. This entails poor sleeping posture, poor standing posture, and poor sitting posture all contribute to muscle pain. Muscle pain from bad posture often is localized muscle pain.

muscle pain all over body

For instance, muscle pain right side and muscle pain left side of the body may be attributed to poor sleeping posture and a bad mattress. Muscle pain from bad posture is easily corrected by employing good posture techniques and good physiotherapy.

  • – Widespread fibromyalgia

When muscle pain becomes on and off and has been ongoing for a while, it may be a pointer to a chronic illness such as fibromyalgia. It is defined by its generalized muscle pain and its weakness. It is sometimes similar to pain felt in muscle strain. Widespread fibromyalgia can radiate pain to different parts of the body such as muscle pain under shoulder blade. Fibromyalgia may also be what causes muscle pain in legs (6).

  • – Inadequate sleep

Inadequate sleep, medically referred to as insomnia can cause muscle pain all over body. Adequate sleep and rest are required to nourish the body, recuperate, and be well-rested. Inadequate sleep makes one inactive and function during the day, it makes the body weak and unable to utilize the day. Sometimes, inadequate sleep may also be a pointer to an underlying medical condition (2).

  • – Medications

Muscle pain, especially muscle pain all over body can also be a side effect of drugs and therapies. Some drugs will result in myositis, which is inflammation of the body’s muscles as part of its side effect. Examples of such medications and therapies are:

  • – Chemotherapies
  • – Radiation therapy
  • – Antihypertensive drugs, such as ACE inhibitors (Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors)
  • – Statins (1).
  • – Medical conditions

Certain medical conditions also cause muscle pain in different parts of the body. Pain in an internal organ can also mimic muscle pain in the affected side of the body. Examples of such medical conditions are:

  1. a) Lupus

Lupus is an autoimmune disease that affects different systems of the body and is not limited to the musculoskeletal system alone. In lupus, the antibodies in the body meant to protect it against infectious agents begin to act against the normal body cells.

Lupus attacks the muscles and joints and cause pain in the muscles and the joints associated with it. For example, muscle pain elbow may be a clear clinical manifestation of lupus along with other pathognomonic signs (4).

  1. b) Urinary tract infections

Infections that affect the urinary system from the urethra to the kidneys are referred to as urinary tract infections or UTIs. This usually occurs when pathogenic microorganisms invade the organs of the urinary system.

Urinary tract infection is more commoner in women compared to male because of the short length of the urethra which is about 4cm. When UTIs occur, it leads to muscle pain in the flanks, which can manifest as muscle pain lower left back, or muscle pain lower right back.

Without adequate and early treatment, a lower urinary tract infection, the infection ascends to the kidney and if not treated early will result in a kidney disease which can be fatal. Aside from the flank pain, people with urinary tract infections also manifest frequent urination, painful urination, and at times, hematuria, that is, blood can be seen in the urine.

  1. c) Kidney disease

Kidney disease whether acute kidney disease, chronic kidney disease, polycystic kidney disease, or pyelonephritis all results in pain in the muscles which radiates to muscular pain in the affected flank side.

Some kidney diseases like kidney stones cause severe infection in the affected kidney side and upon touching, the patient is always very irritable, and the muscle aches too.

Muscle pain right side occurring from kidney stones is always very severe and can radiate to other parts of the body like the loin. Individuals who describe their pain as muscle pain lower left back or lower right back may be trying to describe flank pain and they should be given urgent medical attention for immediate treatment.

  1. d) Shingles

Shingles is another medical condition that results in muscle pains. Shingles result in painful blisters and rashes along the affected part of the body. Anyone that has been infected with chicken pox in the past is also at risk of shingles infection.

Shingles are also high in those who are immunosuppressed, the elderly, and non-vaccinated children. shingles usually affect just parts of the body, so muscle pain all over body may not occur in shingles, when it affects the back, it can result in muscle pain lower right back or muscle pain lower left back (5).

  1. e) Lungs cancer

Muscle pain under shoulder blade oftentimes is radiating pain from other parts of the body and is usually pain from the internal organ, the lungs. Aside from lung cancer, other pain or conditions can manifest as radiating pain presenting as muscle pain under shoulder blade, and examples of such are pericarditis and aortic dissection.

Aside from muscle pain, they have other presentations such as dizziness, difficulty in breathing, and chest pain. These clinical signs should not be ignored because they are maybe life-threatening (6).

  1. f) Depression

Depression is one of the commonest mental health disorders all over the world, and it is often associated with physical clinical manifestations such as joint pain and muscle pain. Muscle pain all over body and generalized body weakness is associated with depression.

Although, the pathophysiological explanation of the condition is psychologically related but mental health experts revealed that the muscle pain felt most often than not is a result of hormonal imbalances from serotonin and norepinephrine (3).

Symptoms Of Muscle Pain

There is no particular order of symptoms associated with muscle pain. However, some of the symptoms traceable to muscle pain are associated with the underlying cause or the muscle inflammatory symptoms. Individuals with muscle pain can notice some of the following symptoms:

  • – Fever, high body temperature
  • – Rashes
  • – Dizziness
  • – Redness
  • – Bite mark
  • – Swelling
  • – Difficulty in breathing in widespread fibromyalgia
  • – Loss of function.

Some of the above signs and symptoms will need urgent medical treatment because they are emergencies, such as difficulty in breathing, dyspnea, and fever. Depending on how severe the muscle pain is, the loss of function can vary from mild to a total inability to use the muscle group affected (2).

When To Call The Doctor For Muscle Pain

A lot of people wonder which doctor for muscle pain is available to be seen for muscle pain or fibromyalgia. However, on the contrary, any trained and licensed physician can treat muscle pain adequately.

There are therefore indications and pointers as to when to visit the doctor for treatment:

  • – Tick bite resulting in muscle pain
  • – Redness and swelling
  • – Muscle pain with rashes
  • – Muscle pain induced by a drug
  • – Difficulty breathing
  • – Dizziness
  • – Neck stiffness
  • – Hyperthermia, elevated body temperature
  • – Loss of function
  • – Vomiting
  • – Reduced urine flow rate (2).

Remedies For Systemic Muscle Pain

Irrespective of the cause of the muscle pain, the following practical steps will help to treat muscle pain and cause relief of symptoms.

  • – Rest

Rest is one of the practical steps to reduce pain and inflammation without the use of medication. Resting the affected body parts helps to relieve symptoms such as pain and swelling. Also, it is advisable to elevate distal parts of the body when they are affected such as muscle pain back of thigh or muscle pain behind knee. Rest the limb and elevate it.

  • – Hot and cold compress

Alternate ice and hot compress can be applied to the affected muscle parts to help relieve symptoms. Muscle pain heat or cold compress will help to improve blood flow and reduce the swelling of the affected body parts. You may want to apply ice to the aching muscles for the first 24 to 72 hours.

  • – Medications

Over-the-counter medications can be used for muscle pain relief and fever. For muscle pain Tylenol or Advil, drugs can be used to relieve pain in the affected muscle groups.

Also, drugs can be prescribed based on the underlying medical condition precipitating the muscle pain. For example, muscle pain back of thigh can be traceable to intermittent claudication and should be treated accordingly.

  • – Complementary therapies

Certain complementary therapies have proven to help relieve muscle pain, examples of such are massage, and acupuncture (1).

Prevention Of Muscle Pain

The following practical steps will help to prevent muscle pain

  • – Adequate hydration: Drinking enough water, especially on active days will help to nourish the muscles and help ease the pain in the muscles
  • – Exercise: Regularly exercising the body helps to strengthen the muscle and keep them healthy
  • – Stretching of muscles
  • – Eating healthy (7).


Muscle pain can be a common occurrence for individuals who engage in physical activity or have an underlying health condition. Muscle aches and pains can range from a dull, lingering soreness to sharp, intense pain that affects movement. Soft tissue injuries can lead to pain and inflammation, which may require blood tests to diagnose the extent of the issue. Muscle weakness can develop alongside sore muscles, which can make daily activities challenging.

Myalgia, or muscle discomfort, can be attributed to a variety of factors. It might occur from a localized injury, for instance, a sprain, or by a local infection, such as inflammatory muscle disease, or pyomyositis. It could also be the outcome of a systemic sickness or infection.

Muscle cramps are also a type of pain that can strike suddenly and cause discomfort. Understanding the type of pain a person is experiencing can help determine the best course of treatment. Rest and gentle stretching can often alleviate sore muscles, while more severe pain may require medication or physical therapy. Maintaining an active lifestyle can help prevent muscle pain, but it’s essential to listen to the body and avoid over-exertion to avoid injury.

A physician or a physical therapist can diagnose the disease by reviewing the signs, medical records, laboratory results, and imaging studies. The remedies for muscle pain varies depending on the reason and might range from lengthy rest, and medication to surgery (3).



  1. 1. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/symptoms/17669-muscle-pain
  2. 2. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322869#seeing-a-doctor
  3. 3. https://www.verywellhealth.com/muscle-pain-what-you-should-know-190093
  4. 4. https://www.webmd.com/pain-management/ss/slideshow-body-aches
  5. 5. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324592#causes
  6. 6. https://www.injurymap.com/articles/shoulder-blade-pain
  7. 7. https://www.healthline.com/health/muscle-aches#prevention