Causes Of Joint Stiffness

causes of joint stiffness


Causes Of Joint Stiffness And Its Treatment

Joint stiffness occurs when there is difficulty in moving a particular joint or joints across the required number range of motions. Most times, joint stiffness does not occur isolated, it is often accompanied by painful joint symptoms or swelling of the affected joint. And depending on the specific etiology of the stiffness, such individuals can experience redness of the joint, tenderness on examination of the joint, numbness and at times, tingling sensation in the affected joint (1).

There are numerous causes of joint stiffness, it can occur as a result of a disease entity like cancer, or it can result from an inflammatory process or even an injury. Interestingly, injury to surrounding structures of a joint, such as the bursae can result in severe pain one of its manifestations can be stiffness of the affected joint, and also restricted movement (2).

joint stiffness hand

Most times, joint stiffness also occurs with age in quite a several patients, in which no specific injury or disease is causing it but just a result of overuse of the joint and surrounding muscles (3).

Possible Causes Of Joint Stiffness

The following are the causes of joint stiffness:

  1. 1. Rheumatoid arthritis

Generally, arthritis account for the highest percentage of the causes of joint stiffness in young adults and the elderly, studies have revealed that close to 15 million patients with arthritis are suffering from joint stiffness and pain (3).

Rheumatoid arthritis is a progressive chronic joint inflammatory disease that arises as a result of a disorder affecting the immune system causing the immune system to affect normal body cells, hence, called an autoimmune disorder.

Rheumatoid arthritis can manifest as joint stiffness hand, although it spares the distal interphalangeal joints, causing pain, stiffness, and nodule-like swelling on the affected joints, and when not corrected early, deformity occurs in long term.

Common clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis are pains in the joint, stiffness, and edema in the affected joint. Although rheumatoid arthritis has no definitive treatment, it has management plans that can help relieve the symptoms, and the earlier the treatment the better to prevent complications from arising (3).

  1. 2. Osteoarthritis

Joint stiffness knee most times occurs as a result of osteoarthritis, which usually occurs as a result of wear and tear of the joint when overuse of the joint occurs. In osteoarthritis, most times the affected structure is the cartilage, when this happens, it leads to bone friction and sometimes bone particles can fall off. This results in stiffness, pain, and swelling of the affected joint (4).

Joint stiffness knee

As the treatment for the condition becomes effective, the joint stiffness and other associated symptoms also reduce and get better. Depending on the severity of the symptoms, lifestyle management can help a lot, such as frequent exercises as medically prescribed in other to reduce the body weight being carried by the joint.

Medications to reduce pain and inflammation can also be used such as acetaminophen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and diclofenac. Surgery, such as joint replacement, is the last resort in chronic cases not responding to medical treatment (3).

  1. 3. Circadian rhythm

Studies have revealed that joint stiffness is severe in the morning compared to other times of the day. People with rheumatoid arthritis experience severe treatment in the morning after waking up from sleep which can go as far as thirty minutes in cases with poor prognosis. Studies have also revealed that patients who have inadequate sleep experience joint pain and weakness at night and very early in the morning as in the case of arthritis (5).

  1. 4. Obesity

Obesity is clinically described as an elevated BMI greater than 30kg/meter square, and when the BMI is greater than 40, it is called severe obesity. In obese patient, their joints are weakened due to the extra load of weight they are carrying at the time, they are also at risk of joint inflammation because fat adipocytes result in the secretion of certain proteins that predisposes the such patient to inflammation.

In obesity, joint stiffness knee joint disease is a common clinical manifestations. Obesity has also been identified as one of the components of metabolic syndrome that can affect tissues and organs of the body, all of which the bone is not an exclusion (5).

  1. 5. Lupus

Lupus, a popular short form of systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune inflammatory disease common in premenopausal women and commonly known for its effects on the body’s joints and muscles. Commonly lupus affects both small and large joints of the body which can produce joint stiffness fingers and painful joint symptoms

Common clinical manifestations of lupus when it affects joint stiffness and swelling, overall generalized body pain, and weakness which also affects the joints. Due to the complexity of the disease, lupus has no definitive treatment and complications often arise as the disease progresses (2).

  1. 6. Psoriatic arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis is a joint inflammation that is often associated with a psoriatic skin disorder, and in most cases, patients with psoriatic arthritis have a family history of the disease. Joint stiffness fingers commonly occur in this disorder and patients manifest pain and swelling, and the nails start to pit.

There is also associated stiffness of the joints in the affected joints of the body such as the hands, the finger, and the knee, and it could be symmetrical or asymmetrical (4).

  1. 7. Bursitis

Bursitis refers to inflammation of the bursae in the joints of the body. Bursaries are cushions in joints that contain fluids and their major function on the joints is to help prevent friction on the joints.

When bursitis occurs, there is swelling of the bursae and this often manifests in stiffness and pain in the joints. Although any joint of the body can be affected, it also commonly affects the large joints more.

Popularly affected joints are the elbow, shoulder, and hip joints. Joint stiffness knee that results in bursitis is due to the affectation of the knee joints. Other joints affected are the ankle and the big toes. Often time bursitis is not a chronic disease, it presents as acute and temporary, and doctors commonly advise patients to rest the affected joint for a week for healing to take place.

Physical exercises can also e done to prevent stiffness or to heal the joint stiffness if there is one already, but this is based on the recommendation by the physical therapist. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can also be used to relieve pain, and examples of such include ibuprofen, and diclofenac (2).

  1. 8. Gout

Unlike the other aetiologies of joint stiffness that are often progressive and chronic, gout is an acute disease of the joint which occurs as a result of excess accumulation of uric acid in the body, hyperuricemia. It may start during sleep causing a sudden stiffness of the joint in the morning, and it is characterized by the sudden pain and tenderness of the affected joint. In most cases, the big toe of the body is commonly affected by gout, and gout can affect any joint of the body

Some studies explain that a gout is a form of arthritis and that it has a sexual predilection for men more than women, especially post-menopausal women. Unlike in lupus where it has no definitive treatment, joint stiffness in gout is treatable with the use of drug therapy, although recurrence is also possible (2).

  1. 9. Bone cancer

Although it is unlikely, this can occasionally result in joint discomfort and stiffness. Joint pain and bone pain are potential side effects of bone malignancy. The most common manifestation of a bone malignancy is the swelling around the bone, and not all patients present with pain, which explains why the malignancy may have become advanced before its diagnosis.

Bone cancer is usually treatable but the treatment approach is often dependent on the cancer staging, the size and the location of the tumor, and of course, the type of cancer is also important in determining the management therapy. Common bone malignancy treatments include the use of radiotherapy, surgery, and the use of chemotherapy as well.

Recently, immunotherapy has been indicated and this includes the use of managing drugs such as pembrolizumab, to stimulate the action of the immune system against the cancer cells (2).

  1. 10. Fibromyalgia

Joint and muscle discomfort, as well as issues with sleep, emotions, and cognition, are all symptoms of this chronic illness. According to researchers, the brain amplifies natural pain impulses. They don’t understand what causes it, but disease, surgery, or periods of extreme stress frequently precede it. However, it doesn’t harm the affected joints the way osteoarthritis does. Joint stiffness knee and painful joint symptoms are manifestations of fibromyalgia (4).

  1. 11. Diet

Consuming dairy and meat products may contribute to the development of diseases like gout or osteoarthritis, which can cause joint stiffness. Humans are possibly more prone to joint stiffness if they consume greater amounts of these meals and fewer organic diets. According to research, adopting a vegetarian or Diet plan may aid with stiffness reduction. It may be advantageous to consume more fiber, cereals, and fruits. Others are vegetables, healthy fats, and herbs (5).

  1. 12. Sleeping position

How individuals sleep during the night is frequently a factor in joint stiffness. Whenever a patient does not sleep with a good neck position and their spine aligned, they may awaken experiencing joint stiffness or soreness. For individuals who are already experiencing joint pain or stiffness in certain parts of their body, it is normally best advised if they avoid sleeping on the same body side when they go to bed at night (4).

  1. 13. Injury to the joints

Patients who suffer from ligament injuries frequently feel excruciating agony. The femur, tibia, and fibula are the three bones that are connected by ligaments in a joint. They contribute to the knee joint’s stability.

The anterior, posterior, and medial cruciate ligaments, which are the three ligaments in the knee, are frequently injured in sports-related injuries. Ligamentous injuries can also occur in car accidents with strong forces.

The following characteristic is frequently seen in patients who have ligament injuries:

  • – Joint pain is always really severe.
  • – Painful joint symptoms causing discomfort when moving.
  • – There is a crepitus-like noise inside the building.
  • – Movement instability or difficulty.
  • – Joint edema in the afflicted area.
  • – The inside of the joint, such as the knee, is sore, producing joint stiffness knee (6).


  1. 14. Fracture

Joint fractures happen when any of the bony parts of the joint experience a discontinuity, and this can make the damaged joint stiff and immobile.

After the fracture has been fixed or healed, stiffness often persists, and in some cases, physical treatment is necessary to relieve it.

Depending on the joint site affected, the stiffness of the joint can occur in different sites of the body, for example, joint stiffness hand will occur in a fracture to the bones of the hands, joint stiffness knee will occur in a knee fracture, and they all have their associated painful joint symptoms.

Therefore, it is always recommended for patients recuperating from fractures to keep all of their scheduled physiotherapy appointments to aid with the stiffness and accompanying swelling.

Treatment For Joint Pain And Stiffness

Before thinking of what to use to relieve joint stiffness, it is best to see a doctor to determine the specific cause of the stiffness and to treat it accordingly. The doctor may diagnose the etiology and recommend the appropriate treatment plan, such as physical therapy that may tackle the cause. The following are the available treatment options for joint stiffness:

  1. A. Medications: Medications such as over-the-counter pain relievers can be used especially when there are associated pains, and the doctor can also prescribe specific NSAIDs depending on the severity of the pain.
  2. B. Cold or hot compress: Following the RICE principle, which requires that patient should rest the affected limb, apply ice, compression, and elevation, when cold compress is applied, it helps to reduce the edema around the stiff joints while hot compress causes relaxation of the muscles and soft tissues.
  3. C. Steroids: Depending on the severity of the joint issue causing the stiffness, the doctor can also prescribe steroids to help with inflammation, but this should be taken with caution because of the possible side effects.
  4. D. Exercise: When necessary, exercise will be prescribed at the right time by the doctor or the physical therapist as exercise can also help to relieve stiffness.
  5. E. Supplements: The use of supplements such as glucosamine and fish oil has been proven to help with joint stiffness (7).



  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.


  1. 7.

Treatment For Hip Pain

treatment for hip pain


Causes, Diagnosis And Treatment For Hip Pain

Despite the durability of the hip joint, it is not indestructible. Many times you probably do not think about your hip joint. But if you’re experiencing hip pain, it may be the only thing on your mind. The hip is a large joint that supports your body and all of its structures, so this means that there can be many causes of hip pain.

Treatment for hip pain depends on your level of pain and the cause of your discomfort. Yoga, cold and heat applications, weight management and hip pain chiropractor can be a healthy treatment for hip pain.

With age and constant use, the cartilage surrounding the hip joint begins to wear down or become damaged. Tendons and muscles in the hip can also get overused. During a fall, bones in the hip can break causing hip pain.

What Is The Anatomy Of The Hip?

The hip joint is where the head of the thigh bone joins the pelvis at a socket known as the acetabulum. cartilage covers both the acetabulum and the bone of the femur in the hip joint.

The synovium, a joint lining tissue surrounds the hip joint. It produces fluid that makes the hip joint smooth and gives supplement to the cartilage. Some various muscles and tendons surround the hip joint. Tiny fluid-filled sacs, called bursae serve as gliding surfaces for tendons and muscles around the hip joint.


Major veins and arteries pass through the hip joint. The sciatic nerve is the largest in the body and it passes behind the hip joint. When the sciatic nerve becomes pinched, it becomes sciatica. One common question asked is can hip pain cause sciatica? Hip pain and sciatica are interwoven, this is because the sciatic nerve travels through the lower back to the hips and buttocks and down each leg (2).

One of the most common causes of hip pain and sciatica is the herniation of the disc in the lumbar spine.

What Are The Possible Causes of Hip Pain?

There are several possible causes of hip pain. The symptoms you experience might give you an idea of what could be causing the pain. These are some of the common conditions that may be causing your discomfort and hip pain.

  • 1. Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis are the most common causes of hip pain, especially in the elderly. Arthritis leads to inflammation caused by arthritis leads to the breakdown of the cartilage that covers your hip bones. The pain worsens with time. People with arthritis have a reduced range of motion and also feel stiffness at the hip joint.

  • 2. Bursitis

The bursae is a fluid-filled sac that lubricates and cushion your joints. There is one between the hard bone on the external part of each hip and its connecting tendon. If the bursae become swollen and inflamed, it is known as trochanteric bursitis. It can become extremely painful, especially when lying on the affected side, moving around, or even simply walking.

  • 3. Hip flexor strain

A strain happens when a tendon or muscle gets torn or stretched. In the hip, the muscles at-risk are the hip flexors (rectus femoris and iliopsoas muscles), which allow you to move your legs forward and backward. Hip flexor strains commonly occur when the muscles are overused in repetitive motion, such as tennis or cycling, or from a direct hit to the hip. A hip flexor strain can cause weakness in the muscle, pain, or restricted movement.

  • 4. Osteonecrosis

This occurs when cells of the hip bone start to die due to a lack of blood supply. Usually, osteonecrosis occurs as a result of excessive use of corticosteroids or alcohol. it can also occur as a result of hip dislocation. Symptoms of osteonecrosis include pain in the buttocks, thighs, or knees, as well as groin pain that worsens with mobility.

  • 5. Labral Tears

Labral tears occur as a result of damage to the cartilage that surrounds the socket of the hip. An accident or repetitive motions can lead to labral tears, and also in early osteoarthritis. Often, sports like football, ice hockey, ballet, soccer, and golf can lead to hip labral tears. Labral tears can also be caused by structural abnormalities of the hip joint.

  • 6. Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI)

This condition occurs when the two bones that form the hip joint develops in an irregular shape. There are 3 types of impingements:

  • – Cam: A bone growth on the surface of the femur that impedes the movement of the ball joint.
  • – Pincer: When the bone grows over the edge of the acetabulum.
  • – Combined: When both cam and pincer growths are present.
  • 7. Snapping Hip Syndrome

The main symptom of this hip injury is a snapping or popping sound in the hip joint. It can also be associated with pain while walking, running, or trying to sit on a chair. The snap occurs when soft tissues, such as muscles or tendons, glide over a bony part of the joint.

One of the tissues commonly affected in snapping hip syndrome is the IT band (iliotibial), which runs from the hip to the thigh. When the iliotibial band passes over the upper thigh bone, it creates a snapping sound. This hip injury is common in athletes or people who participate in repetitive, strenuous motion that causes them to bend.

  • 8. Hip Fractures

Hip fractures are injuries that vary in severity. but all hip fractures need immediate attention from a hip pain chiropractor or orthopedic surgeon. They are mostly caused by severe trauma. Hip fractures are extremely painful and lead to immediate loss of mobility.


Although it usually takes direct trauma for a hip to be fractured, other factors such as cancer, stress injuries, and osteoporosis can weaken the joint and make it vulnerable to fractures.

  • 9. Gynecological and Back Issues for Women

For some women, their hip pain originates from problems with the pelvis. Gynecological issues, like endometriosis or fibroid, can cause significant pain. Likewise, issues with the digestive or urinary systems can also feel like a hip problem. Finally, women might also have issues stemming from the back or spine down around the hip and buttocks area. Sciatica is one common issue that usually causes pain on one side of the body, including the back side of the hip and even down the leg.

  • 10. Inguinal Hernia

An inguinal hernia causes pain in the anterior part of the hip joint and occurs when tissue poke out through a weak hole in the abdomen. This can happen as the result of a sports injury, or the extra pressure women experience on their abdomens during pregnancy.

Sometimes, hernias are not dangerous and they resolve on their own. Others, however, can cause persistent pain, become larger, or cause severe complications. Surgery is often recommended in such cases.

  • 11. Tendinitis

Tendons attach muscles to bones and are seen in various parts of the body. They are strong and thick because of the work they do daily but can become inflamed. When tendons are overused or injured, the resulting pain is called tendonitis. Tendonitis is characterized by pain in the flexor muscles of the hips, which are the muscles that allow the knee to be raised towards your body, and are connected to movement. It can be common in athletes, for example, runners, soccer, or tennis players.

  • 12. Prolonged Sitting

Sitting for a prolonged period can contribute to the weakness of the external rotation causing hip pain. Hip surgery and injuries are other common causes of hip pain external rotation. Without the external rotator muscles, it would be difficult to ensure stability while walking, standing, or extending your legs away from your body.

How Is Hip Pain Diagnosed?

When you come down with hip pain, especially when it is related to arthritis, your physician will ask questions to determine the extent of pain you are in, including:

  • – When did your symptoms first appear?
  • – Is the pain worse at a particular time of day?
  • – Does the pain affect your ability to walk?

Your physician will perform imaging and fluid tests. Fluid tests involve taking samples of urine, blood, and joint fluid for testing in the laboratory. Imaging tests may include:

  • – Ultrasound
  • – X-rays
  • – MRI scans
  • – CT scans

How Do You Know If Your Hip Pain is Serious?

Hip pain can be devastating, but how can you differentiate between one that will resolve in a few days and one that poses more threat to your general well-being? One of the first signs that your hip pain might require medical attention is the duration. If it takes longer than a couple of days without signs of improvement, it might be time to visit your doctor. Here are signs to watch out for:

  • – Bleeding
  • – Fever
  • – Pain as a result of a fall or an injury
  • – An area that’s warm to the touch
  • – Exposed bone or muscle
  • – Inability to bear weight
  • – A popping sound

It is also important to seek help immediately if you experience tenderness, redness, soreness, or warmth in the affected area of your hip joint because that could be symptoms and signs of more serious conditions. For example, septic arthritis, a joint infection that can lead to osteoarthritis or deformities if not treated.

When should I see a doctor for the symptoms of hip pain?

If the pain becomes unbearable, uncomfortable, or has lasted for more than two weeks, it is time to see your doctor. You may also want to try working with an acupuncturist, hip pain chiropractor, or massage therapist. According to a recent study, methods such as acupuncture, massage, heat, or spinal manipulation should be used before using medications (3).

Treatment For Hip Pain Relief

Treatment for hip pain depends on your level of pain and the cause of your discomfort. Here are some of the remedies that can alleviate your hip pain.

  • Gentle exercise or yoga

If hip pain keeps you from moving freely like you once did, gentle exercises such as can help keep you active and bring your hip pain relief. Yoga can be an effective tool in suppressing sore hips because of its holistic method. It is important to Stretch after a warm shower as muscles are usually relaxed.

hip pain yoga

The hip pain yoga postures are designed to improve flexibility, build strength, and correct poor alignment. This is done by moving your joints in a full range of motion to ensure that the joints are in the correct position and loosen up restrictions (4).

  • Medications to treat inflammation

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, and Piroxicam are over-the-counter pain relievers that help reduce pain and inflammation. Corticosteroids and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) such as sulfasalazine and methotrexate also help with rheumatoid arthritis treatment (6). Topical analgesics can be used to massage the hip joint for temporary relief.

  • Cold and Heat.

Treating hip pain with cold and heat may help reduce pain and inflammation. Wrap an ice pack in a towel and place it on your hip. A warm shower can also help prepare your muscles for stretching.

  • Weight Control

If you’re overweight, you might want to consider shedding some weight to reduce the burden on the hip joint. This in turn reduces the amount of pain you feel in your hip joint.

  • Hip Replacement Surgery

If your other treatments have not subsided your hip pain, your doctor may talk to you about hip replacement surgery. The new techniques used in hip replacement surgeries make it very safe with an extremely good outcome (5). Usually, A modern artificial hip can last for at least 15 years. Studies have shown that people who have a hip replacement have their hip pain greatly reduced

How Chiropractic Can Help Hip Pain

After carefully performing a physical examination and evaluating your personal history, a hip pain chiropractor can work to determine the cause of your hip pain.

Your hip pain chiropractor will create a personalized treatment plan that includes exercise therapy, chiropractic adjustments, posture advice, massage, stretching, and coordination with other health personnel. Treatments will aim to relax any existing muscle spasms, reduce inflammation, improve the mobility of the joint, and strengthen weakened muscles.



5 Causes For Knee Inflammation

knee inflammation


Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Management for Knee Inflammation

The knee joint, which connects the two longest bones in the body—the top of the tibia and the bottom of the femur—with the knee cap in the middle, is the largest joint in the body. It is one of the most active and strained joints because of the significant role it plays in mobility and weight bearing. Therefore, it is not surprising that the knee is more prone to damage, such as knee inflammation. In a survey carried out in the United States, it was discovered that the knee is the most commonly injured joint by young adult athletes with an estimated 2.5 million sports-related injuries each year (1).

It serves the following purposes as a hinge joint:

  1. 1. Enables you to walk more effectively
  2. 2. Supports the body in maintaining proper posture
  3. 3. Serves as a shock absorber; enables you to bend and twist your leg; and offers stability while you’re moving.

What Is knee Inflammation AKA Swollen Knee?

Inflammation causes pain and swelling due to the build-up of fluid around a damaged area that causes the area to become larger and swollen.

There are various types of inflammation. A person’s joints, such as the knee, may have:

  • – Edema — swelling in the tissues surrounding the joint
  • – Effusion — swelling within a joint
  • – Hemarthrosis — swelling and blood buildup within the joint

Causes of Knee inflammation or Knee Swelling

Inflammation of the knee can be caused by various factors such as injury, infection, gout, arthritis, and bursitis. Knee pain is caused by the knee inflammation due to these factors. The symptoms and causes for knee pain and inflammation are described in details below.

  1. 1. Injury to the Knee

Knee pain is a common symptom of inflammation of the knee. Swelling in the knee can result from trauma to the knee’s bones, tendons, bursae, ligaments meniscus, or articular cartilage. Blood can rush into the knee joint as a result of serious injury, resulting in substantial edema, stiffness, warmth, and bruising. When a swelling occurs immediately after an injury, it is called Hemarthrosis, a disorder that requires immediate medical attention.

When the swelling occurs 2 to 3 days after the injury, sympathetic effusion or gradually forming haemarthrosis is suggestive. This can be as a result of a meniscus injury. (2)

  1. 2. Arthritis

The most common form of arthritis, also responsible for knee inflammation is Osteoarthritis. Degeneration of the hip and Knee joint cartilage can lead to excess production of fluid at the joint, causing the knee to swell. Stress on the knee joint and inflammation caused by osteoarthritis is often mild to moderate.

A painful swollen knee caused by knee osteoarthritis is common. Evidence suggests that people with severe osteoarthritic knee pain are more likely to experience knee swelling and knee pain going up stairs. In a study carried out among osteoarthritis patients, it was reported that the greater the amount of fluid found in the knee joint, the more severe the pain experienced by the patients.

  1. 3. Gout

When there are high levels of uric acid in your body, it leads to a build-up of urate crystals in your joint, resulting in an inflamed knee and intense pain. Knee pain gout can also be accompanied by the following irregular symptoms:

  • – A warm feeling around the knee
  • – Peeling and/or itching of the skin as swelling decreases
  • – Change of skin color around the knee.
  • – Knee pain like sharp needle
  • – Visible skin lumps. (3)
  1. 4. Infection

Inflammation of the knee can be caused by knee infections. Otherwise known as infectious arthritis, it is majorly caused by bacteria. This bacteria can be transmitted through the bloodstream from one part of the body to the knee. An open wound can also be infected or complications arising from knee surgery could cause the knee to be infected by bacteria.

In a few cases, it can also be fungal or viral in nature. (4)

An infected knee is mainly characterized by severe knee pain lower inside when you want to move your knee joint. You may have one or more of the following symptoms

  • – Nausea and chills
  • – Persistent fever for more than 24 hours
  • – Stiffness in the knee
  • – Swelling and redness around your knee
  1. 5. Knee Bursitis

Inflammation of the prepatellar bursa is another common cause of knee inflammation. A bursa is a small and slippery fluid-filled sac that acts as a lubricant and cushion between the kneecap (patellar bone) and surrounding skin, called knee bursitis. When the prepatellar bursa gets inflamed, it produces excess fluid, which causes the front of the knee to swell. You may experience knee pain lunges.

For most cases of knee inflammation due to bursitis, excess pressure and friction on the knee joint and overuse over time is the common reason. Bursitis is a common cause of knee pain VA rating for veterans. (5)

Other risks factors of knee inflammation include:

  • – Age: The likelihood of developing an inflamed knee due to arthritis is higher among older people. Osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disease thought to be an inevitable consequence of growing old.

In a Framingham Osteoarthritis study carried out on subjects aged 60 and above, it was discovered that there was a corresponding increased prevalence of osteoarthritis with each decade of life. From 33% among those aged 60 to 70 to 43.7% among people of 80 years and above. (6)

  • – Rheumatoid arthritis: RA is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease. It is characterized by one’s immune system attacking one’s healthy cells, causing pain and inflammation in the affected tissues.
  • – Obesity: Being obese puts extra weight on your joints, especially your knees. This gives room for joint and tissue overload which can, in turn, cause degeneration of the knee, resulting in knee inflammation. The more you weigh, the more stressed and impaired your joints become, causing knee pain on stairs. It also increases your chance of developing osteoarthritis.
  • – Sports: Knee injuries are very common among athletes. Participating in high-impact sports that involve rotating or twisting your knee such as basketball, football, hockey, etc could increase your risk of getting knee injuries that can cause inflammation of the knee. Thus, you are encouraged to wear protective gear (knee braces) when engaging in any high-impact sports. People at risk of experiencing knee pain leg extension should engage in only gentle exercises.
  • – Previous Injury: if you have a previous knee injury, then it’s likely that a dislocation or trauma to the knee could increase your causes of developing knee inflammation.

How to know when your knee is inflamed

  • – Swelling: you might have a swollen knee joint when the skin around your kneecap pops out and looks bigger than normal. This may limit your ability to flex your knee.
  • – Pain: you may experience knee pain like sharp needle when you touch the inflamed area or knee pain on top of the kneecap when you try to put your weight on your knee.
  • – Stiffness: you may find it difficult to fully bend or straighten your knee due to the build-up of fluids in the knee joint.
  • – Redness: redness of the area around the knee joint could also indicate an inflamed knee
  • – Occasional locking and giving away of the knees

Diagnosis and Treatment for Knee Pain and Inflammation

Diagnosis for Knee Inflammation

  • Physical Examination:

The physician can carefully examine the knee, comparing it with the healthy knee. The knee is palpated at a 90 degrees angle to check for tenderness and localized swelling. This method can be used to determine the presence or absence of effusion, which helps to identify inflammation due to edema or any extra-articular swelling.

  • Imaging Tests
  1. 1. X-ray:

This is usually the first imaging test carried by a physician out to diagnose a condition. A knee X-ray produces an image of the anatomy of your knee. It can reveal the alignment of your knee, soft tissue changes, as well as the degree of any degenerative differences around the knee. Getting an X-ray done aids in finding evidence of injury (like a fracture), tenderness, or swelling.

  1. 2. Ultrasound

Commonly preferred for its safe and non-radiative method, ultrasound imaging is effective in producing clear and detailed images of soft tissues within the knee joint. It can detect inflammation, injuries and knee pain lying down, as well as bone erosion caused by arthritis.

  1. 3. MRI

This imaging test has become increasingly popular in determining soft tissue damage to the knee. It has also been proven by studies to be efficient in diagnosing injuries to the meniscus and ligaments surrounding the knee that can not be detected by X-rays.

  • Aspiration (Arthrocentesis)

Although it can also serve as a therapeutic procedure, aspirating a swollen knee is helpful in diagnosis. It involves removing the fluid from the knee with a needle and testing the fluid for the presence of bacteria, blood, or crystals. While the presence of blood can be indicative of a meniscal injury, the presence of crystals indicates gout as the causative factor.

This procedure should be carried out in patients with knee effusion of suspected infectious etiology. Patients with a history of trauma to the knees may not undergo this procedure. (7)

Treatment for Knee Inflammation and other Knee Problems

The treatment options for an inflamed knee depend on the cause of the swelling and its severity.

Home Therapy:

Mild to moderate knee swelling can be treated at home using the RICE formula. It is a 4-step formula that involves the following:

  • Rest:

Rest is essential in relieving knee pain lying down and inflammation associated with knee injuries. When you take a break from sports and other weight-bearing activities, it gives your knee joint time to heal and recover. This doesn’t mean that you should keep the knee immobile. You could flex and straighten it gently to help maintain a range of motion.

  • Ice:

The use of ice is a method of cold therapy known for its effectiveness in significantly reducing inflammation associated with swelling and knee pain top of kneecap. It works by reducing blood flow to the inflamed area. You can opt for the following methods:

  • – Placing ice packs or cold compress (paper towels immersed in ice water) on the knee,
  • – Use of coolant sprays
  • – Having an ice massage
  • – Having an ice bath (just the knee should be placed in the bath)

As this treatment for knee pain can temporarily reduce nerve activity, people with sensory disorders and poor circulation should not use this therapy. (8)

  • Compression:

Involves using a compression bandage to wrap around the swollen knee to prevent the collection of fluid in the knee joint. You should take care not to wrap the knee too tightly to avoid numbness, increased knee pain on stairs, or swelling in the foot.

  • Elevation:

This is the last step of the RICE method. It involves lying down or sitting with your leg propped up on a pillow or elevated stool. The aim is to keep the knee elevated higher than your heart level to decrease blood flow to the knee. This also allows for the collected fluid to flow downwards away from the knee to the hip, and heart and eventually reabsorbed into the lymphatic system.

Inflammation, swelling, and associated pain are alleviated through this method.

Gentle Exercises:

For mild to moderate inflammation, you can engage in gentle exercises to help increase circulation around the joint and boost the healing process. Some exercises include:

  • – Knee Swings: as the name implies, it involves sitting close to the edge of a chair and allowing your legs to dangle in a controlled motion.
  • – Knee Flexion Supine: this activity is particularly useful for an inflamed stiff knee joint. Here, you move your heels back towards your bottom as far back as possible. Then return with your leg straight to the start position.
  • – Knee Extensions Prone: involves lying down with face down and knee flexed. Then straighten your leg in a slow and controlled manner before returning to the start position. (9)


  • NSAIDs

A class of drugs, Nonsteroid Anti Inflammatory Drugs, (NSAIDs) are known for their anti-inflammatory benefits, as well as effective in alleviating knee pain. Although inflammation is your body’s way of responding to injury or infection, it also causes swelling, pain, and discomfort.

NSAIDs work by inhibiting the cycloxygenase enzyme (COX) responsible for the production of prostaglandins. These prostaglandins are the reason why you feel pain, fever, and inflammation.

NSAIDs such as Ibuprofen and Naproxen can be prescribed over the counter and reduces inflammation in a few days. (10)

  • Steroids

Steroid injections like cortisones may be administered to provide rapid and lasting relief for your inflamed knee. This sports medicine has to be taken under the recommendations of your healthcare provider and may help reduce your common knee problems.


As earlier stated, aspirating the excess fluid at the affected knee joint helps to reduce swelling, thereby relieving inflammation.


Surgery might be required when your knee structure has been damaged by arthritis or failure to respond to other therapies. Two common surgery procedures include:

  • Arthroscopy: this is a similar but more complex procedure method than arthrocentesis. Here, long, thin instruments are placed into your knee joint by the surgeon with the aid of a small camera called the arthroscope.

It can be carried out to remove inflamed synovial tissue, loose fragments of bones or cartilage, remove or repair a torn meniscus and treat knee pain top of the kneecap. (11)

  • Knee replacement: this is also known as knee arthroplasty is done to resurface a knee damaged by arthritis. It may also be considered for someone who has severe knee injury such as a veteran with a knee pain VA rating of 100%. It involves capping the ends of the bones of the knee joint with plastic and metal parts. Knee replacement is an orthopaedic surgery done by a licensed physician.



  1. 1.











7 Diseases That Cause Joints Pain In Legs

joints pain in legs


7 Diseases That Cause Joints Pain In Legs

Joints pain is a common issue that can affect people of all ages. It can occur in any joint in the body, including joint pain in legs, hips, back, and shoulder. This pain can range from mild to severe in intensity. There are many potential causes of joint pain, including injury, inflammation, and certain medical conditions.

What Is A Joint?

A joint is a point where two or more bones meet in the body. Joints play a vital role in allowing us to move and perform a wide range of activities. They are held together by various tissues, including bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage, and are supported by muscles and other tissues.

There are three main types of joints:

– Fibrous joints: Fibrous joints are held together by tough, fibrous tissue and do not allow for much movement. Examples of fibrous joints include the sutures in the skull and the joint between the upper and lower jaw.

– Cartilaginous joints: Cartilaginous joints are held together by cartilage, a type of flexible connective tissue. These joints allow for some movement, but not as much as synovial joints. Examples of cartilaginous joints include the joints between the vertebrae in the spine, the joint between the sternum, and the ribs.

– Synovial joints: Synovial joints are the most common type of joint in the body and are characterized by the presence of a joint capsule, which encloses the joint and contains a lubricating fluid called synovial fluid. These joints allow for a wide range of movement and are found in the shoulders, hips, knees, and other areas.

Joints pain all over body can occur when there is an issue with any of these tissues or when there is an underlying medical condition that affects the joints. Joints pain at night can be worse particularly for people with arthritis or other conditions that cause chronic pain. Joints pain at night can interfere with sleep and can lead to fatigue and other problems.

 Diseases That Cause Joints Pain In Legs

Joints pain in legs can be caused by a variety of factors that can affect people of all ages.

knee relief

Below are 7 types of diseases that cause joints pain in legs:

  1. 1. Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is the most common type of joint pain and occurs when the cartilage in a joint wears down over time. It most often affects the hands, knees, hips, and lower back. Symptoms of osteoarthritis may include pain, stiffness, and difficulty moving the affected joint. It can cause pain especially when pressure is added to the affected part or the cartilage. An x-ray of the affected area may reveal its severity.
  2. 2. Rheumatoid arthritis: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and stiffness in the joints. It can affect any joint in the body but is most commonly seen in the hands, wrists, and knees. Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may include joint stiffness, pain and swelling.
  3. 3. Gout: Gout is sort of an unexplained form of arthritis that occurs when the amount of uric acid in the blood is higher than normal, and forms crystals in the joints. It most often affects the big toe, but can also affect the ankles, knees, wrists, thigh and fingers. Symptoms of gout may include sudden and severe joint pain, swelling, and redness.
  4. 4. Bursitis: Bursitis is inflammation of a bursa, which is a small, fluid-filled sac that cushions the bones, tendons, and muscles near a joint. It can occur in any joint in the body but is most commonly seen in the shoulder, elbow, and hip. Symptoms of bursitis may include pain, swelling, and stiffness.
  5. 5. Sprains: A sprain is an injury to a ligament, which is a band of tissue that connects bones. It can occur when a joint is twisted or turned too far and is most commonly seen in the ankles, wrists, and knees. Symptoms of a sprain may include pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected joint.
  6. 6. Fractures: A fracture is a break in a bone. It can occur as a result of an injury, such as a fall or car accident, or due to a medical condition that weakens the bones, such as osteoporosis. Symptoms of a fracture may include pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected joint.
  7. 7. Tendinopathy: Tendinopathy is a term that refers to any condition that affects a tendon, including tendinitis and tendinosis. Tendinitis is inflammation of a tendon, while tendonosis is a degenerative condition that results from overuse or repetitive strain. Symptoms of tendinopathy may include pain, stiffness, and difficulty moving the affected joint. This affects the muscles of the knee and prevents it from being moved towards your body.

Joints Pain In Pregnancy

Joints pain in pregnancy occurs particularly in the later stages when the weight of the baby puts extra strain on the joints. Another cause of joint pain in pregnancy could be due to postural shifts that occur to accommodate the fetus during pregnancy, Hormonal changes during this period can also cause the joints to become more lax, which can lead to joint pain in pregnancy (3).

Common Areas Of Joint Pain in Pregnancy

There are certain areas in the body where you feel pain the most while pregnant, they include;

  1. 1. Sacroiliac/hip joint pain. The sacroiliac joint is the joint between the tailbone and the pelvis. These joints play an important role in supporting your weight and distributing it across your pelvis.
  2. 2. Lower back pain. Also known as Lumbar pain, is usually triggered by the softening of the ligaments in the pelvic area.
  3. 3. Knee pain. Due to weight gain during pregnancy, some people experience joint pain in the leg, especially the knee joints.
  4. 4. Pelvic joint pain. You may experience pain in the pelvic region in the perineum area or front center of your pubic bone. This could lead to the symphysis pubis, a more serious condition.

Nutrient Deficiencies That Causes Joint Pain In Legs

Certain nutrient deficiencies may contribute to joint pain. When the body lack certain nutrients, it becomes predisposed to various bone diseases, including joint pain.

green lipped mussel

Here are a few examples of nutrients that may help relieve pain:

– Vitamin D deficiency: Vitamin D is important for maintaining strong bones and may also play a role in reducing inflammation. A deficiency in vitamin D may increase the risk of joint pain and osteoporosis (2).

– Calcium deficiency: Calcium is essential for maintaining healthy bones and teeth. A calcium deficiency may increase the risk of osteoporosis, which can lead to joint pain and fractures.

– Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency: Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found in fatty fish and certain plant-based sources, may have anti-inflammatory properties and may help reduce joint pain. A deficiency in omega-3 fatty acids may increase the risk of joint pain and inflammation.

– Vitamin C deficiency: Vitamin C is important for maintaining healthy connective tissue, including the ligaments and tendons that support the joints. A deficiency in vitamin C may increase the risk of joint pain and other musculoskeletal problems.

– Protein deficiency: Protein is essential for maintaining healthy muscles and other tissues, including the cartilage that cushions the joints. A deficiency in protein may increase the risk of joint pain and other musculoskeletal problems.

Symptoms Of Joint Pain In Legs

Joints pain symptoms can vary depending on the underlying cause. In general, joints pain symptoms may include pain, stiffness, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected joint. Some people may also experience warmth and redness around the joint. The joint also becomes weak and unstable in some people.

Treatment For Joint Pain In Legs

There are many different medications and treatments available for joint pain. Joint pain best medicine will depend on the underlying cause of the pain and the severity of the symptoms. For mild to moderate joint pain, over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, may be sufficient. For more severe joint pain, prescription pain medications or other treatments may be necessary. For example, steroid injections, DMARDS, and topical capsaicin (1).

One supplement that has been shown to be effective for joints pain glucosamine. Glucosamine is a natural compound that is found in the body and is believed to help support healthy joints. It is available in supplement form and is often used to treat osteoarthritis and other types of joint pain. Joints pain glucosamine is used orally to treat conditions caused by the breakdown, inflammation, and eventual loss of cartilage (4). It is known to slow the progression of arthritis.

Massage therapy has been shown to treat joint pain and stiffness, as well as improve the range of motion and walking.

Surgery. Arthritis can cause serious damage to the joints. Surgery may be required to help fix or replace a damaged joint, improve the way the joint functions, and reduce pain (5).

When To Seek A Healthcare Professional For Joint Pain In Legs

Joint pain is rarely an emergency. Most cases of mild joint pain can be successfully managed at home. Make an appointment with your physician if your joint pain is accompanied by redness, warmth, tenderness, and swelling around the affected joint. Also, see a doctor as soon as possible if your joint pain is caused by an injury and is accompanied by an inability to use the joint, a deformed joint and intense pain.

However, some causes of joint pain might need to be treated urgently.

– Fracture (broken bones).

– Infection in a joint (septic arthritis).

– Rheumatoid arthritis. This is because the sooner you begin treatment, the better it is for it to be treated without the risk of long-term effect.

How To Prevent Joints Pain In Legs – Risk Factors

It is important to take care of your joints to help prevent joint pain. Some tips for maintaining healthy joints include:

  1. 1. Staying physically active: One of the most important things you can do to manage joint pain is to stay physically active. Regular exercise can help strengthen the muscles around the joints, improve flexibility and range of motion, and reduce stiffness and pain. It is important to find low-impact activities that do not put too much strain on the joints, such as swimming or cycling. It is also important to stretch before and after exercising to help reduce stiffness and improve flexibility.
  2. 2. Maintaining a healthy weight: Extra weight puts additional strain on the joints, particularly the knees, hips, and lower back. Losing excess weight can help reduce joint pain and improve mobility.
  3. 3. Eating a healthy diet: A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins can help support healthy joints. Some studies have also suggested that certain foods, such as fatty fish, olive oil, and nuts may have anti-inflammatory properties and may help manage joint pain.
  4. 4. Protecting your joints: It is important to use proper body mechanics and to take breaks when engaging in activities that put a strain on the joints, such as lifting heavy objects or standing for long periods. Using assistive devices, such as a cane or crutches, can also help reduce strain on the joints. Other lifestyle modifications include applying heat or ice to the affected joint and taking warm baths or showers to help relax muscles.
  5. 5. Stretching regularly: Stretching can help improve flexibility and reduce stiffness and pain in the joints. It is important to stretch before and after exercising and to hold each stretch for at least 20-30 seconds.
  6. 6. Getting enough rest: Adequate sleep is important for overall health and can help reduce joint pain and stiffness.


In conclusion, joint pain is a common issue that can affect people of all ages and can occur in any joint in the body. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, inflammation, and certain medical conditions. Staying physically active, maintaining a healthy weight, and making lifestyle changes can help manage joint pain. If you are experiencing joint pain, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.



  1. 1.
  2. 2.


  1. 4.
  2. 5.

Methods Of Knee Relief

knee relief


Methods Of Knee Relief

There are both surgical and non-surgical methods of knee relief, and knee relief is needed to relieve pain in the knee joint. The knee joint is one of the major joints in the body and has been identified as the biggest joint of the human body, and it serves as the point of connection for both the upper and lower bones of the lower limbs, that is the femur and the tibia.

The joint allows for easy mobility of the limb allowing for walking, squatting, sitting, and jumping. The components of the knee joint are:

Femur: The femur bone is the longest in the human body located at the thigh

Tibia: Tibia bone is another long bone in the body located at the lower leg, also referred to as the shin bone.

Patella: patella bone is a triangular thick bone serving as a cap over the bones, otherwise called the knee cap (1).

Tendons: the tendon is a component of a joint that helps to connect the bones to the muscles

Cartilage: The cartilage is responsible for absorbing shock, serving as joint protective lining.

Ligament: Ligaments are the tissue components that connect bone to bones

Meniscus: frictions are prevented in the joint with the help of the meniscus, which provides a cushion effect deep inside the joint space

Bursa: bursa is located under the skin, a pad-like structure that serves a protective function (2).

Indications For Knee Relief

Knee relief is necessary for various conditions that affect the knee, ranging from knee pain to post-amputation and lots more. The following are some of the conditions that require knee relief:

A. Knee pain and other common knee problems

Knee pain is the commonest reason why knee relief is often needed. Knee pain is caused by severa- factors but joint overuse, knee pain and inflammation called arthritis or osteoarthritis, and injuries are the leading causes of knee pain. However, knee pain is a common event in old age due to degenerative joint disease present in the elderly, a common condition referred to as osteoarthritis. Below are some of the causes of knee pain.

  1. 1. Joint overuse

Frequent use of the joint as in athletes or footballers leads to inflammation of the bursa referred to as bursitis. The bursae are located in every joint of the human body where they serve as cushions protecting the bones and tendons, as wel- as the muscles.

The knee contains bigger bursae due to its large surface area and when knee overuse is the cause, it causes the bursae to be inflamed and swollen which most times manifest with knee pain. Bursitis causes knee pain at night or nighttime knee pain and it has been one of the causes of knee pain lying down. Most times the site of pain is deep inside the knee causing knee pain lower inside or right on the knee cap leading to knee pain top of knee cap, and the affected knee is also warm touch (3).

  1. 2. Injury

Knee pain following injury is sometimes severe and the range of severity is dependent on the part or component of the knee that is affected. Some common injuries that may cause pain and a unstable knee are:

Tendonitis: this refers to inflammation of the joint tendons and is often a result of running or in cases of repeated jumping, this leads to knee pain top of knee cap, knee pain going up stairs, and pain just between the shin and the cap covering of the knee, irritation of the knee tendon also lead to knee pain lying down (4).

Knee ligament injuries: injuries to the knee ligaments from trauma or sports leads to knee pain. Knee pain ligament is commonly from the anterior cruciate ligament and it is mostly due to contact injuries such as sports (5).

Dislocation of kneecap: Trauma is the commonest cause of knee cap dislocation leading to a shift in the origina- position of the knee cap. Knee pain top of knee cap is the most common clinica- manifestation of this kind of injury.

Menisca- tear: The semi-solid slippery tissue located at the joint that aids the smooth movement of bones together is referred to as the meniscus. Tear to this structure is one of the common injuries that precipitated knee pain, and it often presents with knee pain like sharp needle (2).

  1. 3. Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that occurs as a result of wear and tear at the joint over a long period. An increase in body weight is one of the major risk factors for osteoarthritis, old age also predisposes to osteoarthritis leading to excessive workload and stress on the knee. Osteoarthritis leads to knee pain lying down and knee pain in pregnancy, especially in multiple gestations where weight gain can be massive (2).

  1. 4. Gout

Gout occurs when there is excessive accumulation of uric acid in the body, known as hyperuricemia, which most times occurs from difficulty in waste excretion as in chronic kidney disease. Knee pain gout is often very severe pain in the morning, and acute pain manifests as a hot and red joint with a sudden onset of pain (4).

  1. 5. Exercises

Certain forms of exercises have been noted to be responsible for knee pain in some patients presenting to the clinic. Knee pain leg extension is common in fitness enthusiast that does exercises involving leg extension, and knee pain lunges are also popular among individuals lunging.

Knee pain VA rating

VA simply refers to the Veteran Affairs, the VA rates pains and injuries of the musculoskeleta- system deciding if they are qualified to be called a disability. There are certain conditions and criteria to be met before knee pain can be considered for the functiona- loss under the VA rating.

To be eligible for a knee pain VA rating, the veteran must be able to fulfil- the criteria below for a knee pain VA rating:

– Such an individua- must have been diagnosed in a medica- facility to have knee pain and must be in the medica- records

– That the knee pain was complicated and got worse in active military service or by another service connected to the disability.

– Such pain must be persistent and recurrent in terms of frequency, intensity, and duration of the pain, and there must associate functiona- impairment or loss (6).

B. Fracture – a common knee problem

A fracture is a break in the continuity of a bone. The knee cap can be fractured in severe forcefu- trauma and this produces knee pain top of kneecap in later years such individuals experience knee pain on stairs because of the up and down motion of the kneecap on stairs (4).

C. Prolong immobility

Immobility without frequent or occasional exercise is a risk factor for knee pain and pain in other joints of the body. Hospita- admission for a long period or long-distance drivers are prone to knee pain from driving, and such people wil- require knee relief.

Knee Pain Keeping You Up All Night – Methods Of Knee Relief

There are both surgical and non-surgical methods of knee relief, and the method to be employed will depend largely on the cause of the knee pain. Depending on the method to be used, it is best to see a medical practitioner. For individuals just arriving at a location or who just relocated, they can go online and search for “knee pain doctor near me” to have access to good health care. Losing weight may help with knee pain relief to some extent, but usually knee pain issue has to do with more than excessive body weight.

A. Non-surgical methods of knee relief for knee arthritis

The non-surgical method of knee relief can be pharmacological or non-pharmacological to keep your knee healthy. These methods can be used for pain in both hip and knee.

  1. 1. Pharmacological method

Below are the pharmacological methods of pain relief:

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

NSAIDs are usually employed for mild to moderate knee pain, and most people with such category of pain treat themselves with over-the-counter non-steroida- anti-inflammatory drugs or with the use of acetaminophen.

NSAIDs are wel- known for their efficiency in helping to relieve pain and reducing swelling from inflammation. Some of the most used NSAIDs include ibuprofen and naproxen sodium available over the counter in various brand names. Knee pain gout in a patient with gout or knee pain from driving can be treated with NSAIDs (7).


Acetaminophen is a widely known analgesic that helps to relieve pain as wel- as bring down a high temperature. It has been trusted and proven reliable in the management of knee pain. It can help to reduce knee pain like sharp needles experienced in patients with osteoarthritis or knee pain lying down from injury to the tendons. Some common examples of sports medicine containing acetaminophen available are Tylenol, actamin, and feveral- (7).

Hydrocortisone injection

Hydrocortisone is a common intravenous corticosteroid that can be administered directly to the knee. The major advantage of injection corticosteroid is that it helps to reduce pain and swelling, as wel- as make movement easier in patients with knee pain.

It is the best medication for knee pain gout, knee pain ligament injuries, arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The dose varies between 5 and 50mg of hydrocortisone and can be given up to four or five times a year, and should be given with precaution and prescription as corticosteroids also have their side effects on the body such as peptic ulcer disease, osteoporosis, and immunosuppression (7).

Hyaluronic acid

Hydrocortisone is usually injected directly into the knee by the doctor to help relieve pain and its associated symptoms and also to aid mobility, especially in stiff joints. It is wel- known for its effectiveness in relieving osteoarthritis and also in gout management. Depending on the indication for it and the type of hyaluronic acid used by the doctor, one to five injections are usually used over severa- weeks of treatment (7).

  1. 2. Non-pharmacological

The non-pharmacological method of knee relief is further divided into therapy and home remedies.

RICE principle

The RICE principle is an acronym for Rest, Ice, Compress, and Elevate. It entails the following:

Rest: It is important to immobilize the affected limb for a while, at least 24 hours or more free from sport or physica- activities. But those with knee swelling should extend and flex the knee at the interva- to prevent stiffness.

Ice: Ice should be applied on the affected knee for about fifteen to twenty minutes at an interva- of three to four hours per day, and should be done for about three days unti- the pain subsides. Make sure to apply ice on the affected area for knee relief.

Compression: compression should be applied on the affected limb, this includes the use of compression bandages and sleeves around the joint. This wil- help to reduce the swelling drastically and if possible aid support (5).

Elevation: The affected leg limb should be elevated to prevent fluid accumulation by gravity which wil- result in edema of the leg. The joint and calf area should be supported with a pillow while lying down to raise the limb above the heart. Patients with persistent knee pain with associated swelling can purchase a leg elevation pillow to help provide the needed support(3).

Knee pain Kinesio tape

Knee taping is a non-pharmacologica- method of relieving knee pain, it helps to support the knee while also providing a solution to knee injuries. It is a specia- kind of tape usually applied around the joint at specific positions, and it is believed to function in preventing pain by providing support to the joint and the muscles.

Individuals interested in knee pain Kinesio tape should consult a doctor or a physica- therapist for assessment to be sure it is indicated in their condition because it is just an adjunct therapy and not a definitive treatment for knee pain, and there are different types of knee tape with different techniques (8).

Physical therapy

Physical therapy for knee pain ranges from exercise prescription to the use of braces and lots more.


Aside from strengthening the muscles and improving mobility, exercise also helps in weight loss, especially for patients who are overweight and whose overweight is not secondary to multiple gestations at the time of presentation.

Precautions should be taken in exercise for knee pain and should be prescribed by a physiotherapist because the wrong exercise can complicate the knee problem thereby worsening the knee pain.

Therefore, it is important to participate in an exercise that wil- promote weight loss as wel- as ensure the healing of the joint (9). Exercises are important to relieve knee pain in pregancy.

Lunges are exercises to improve the strength of the legs and the glutes, however, some patients develop Knee pain lunges from the lunging exercise. In such cases, precautions should be taken in recommending other forms of exercises such as squatting with the stability bal- behind, glute bridge, or static lunge (10).

B. Surgical method of knee relief for arthritis

In cases of knee pain secondary to trauma to the knee joint, minimally invasive surgery can be done to repair the affected structures such as tendon or ligament tears. Knee arthroplasty can also be done to replace the knee joint in cases of a crush injury to the knee or in complicated osteoarthritis, and other severe conditions (2). Knee replacement surgeries are done by licensed Orthopedic doctors, and such a procedure is referred to as orthopedic surgery.


  1.  1.,leg+bone%2C+or+thigh+bone
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.


  1. 10.

What back pain can cause

What back pain can cause


Back Pain: Causes, Treatment And What Back Pain Can Cause

Back pain is one of the commonest conditions in clinics, especially orthopedic clinics and it can be severe enough to cause loss of function such as an inability to cope wel- at work. The causes of back pain are quite a number ranging from musculoskeleta- sprains to underlying organ issues such as back pain near kidneys. The complications and what back pain can cause should be prevented early enough.

What Back Pain Means

Back pain is not an outright medica- diagnosis but it is a symptom often mentioned by the patient, which can serve as a pointer to another major or minor medica- condition. The advantage of presenting early in patients with back pain is that it can be completely reversed without any complications.

When back pain is serious, it wil- require a multidisciplinary treatment that can involve both the doctor and other members of the health team (1).

studies have revealed that close to 90% of united states residents wil- experience back pain at a point in their lifetime and out of these people, 50% of them wil- present with multiple episodes of back pain (2).

Types Of Back Pain or What Back Pain Can Cause

There is no one-way direction to the types of back pain patients present with. Back pain can be classed based on the segment of the back affected by the pain. These are:

– Upper back pain

– Middle back pain

– Lower back pain

Back pain can be classified based on the degree of pain experienced by the patient, these are

– Mild back pain

– Moderate back pain

– Severe back pain

Based on the duration of the pain experienced by the patient, back pain can be:

– Acute back pain: acute back pain is sudden pain and usually within a short duration of time

– Chronic back pain: chronic back pain is a slow progressive pain that usually occurs within twelve weeks to six months.

Back pain can also be classified based on its anatomica- location. These are:

– Cervica- back pain

– Thoracic or mid back

– Lumbar or lower back pain

– Sacra- back pain

– Sacroiliac back pain (2).

Risk factors of back pain

There are quite severa- factors that predispose an individua- to have back pain. Such factors are:

Gender: The presentation of back pain is commoner among women, especially post-menopausa- women and this has been traced to the effect of low levels of estrogen in their bodies.

Age: Back pain is commoner among middle age people and it often starts around 40 years of age

Obesity: Being overweight causes an increasing body weight on the lower back of the body starting from the back, thereby putting stress on the back

Inactivity: Back pain has also been attributed to lack of activity or decreased exercise. This is also the reason why obesity is also implicated in back pain

Medica- conditions: Certain medica- conditions predispose one to have back pain, most of these are condition that affects joints such as arthritis. Patients with cancer can also have metastasis to the spine which wil- manifest as back pain.

Poor posture: Improper sitting or standing posture can affect the back. Poor posture has also been recorded as one of the causes of back pain under right shoulder blade.

Anxiety and depression: Menta- health patients often experience psychosomatic pains in their body which are psychologica- and one such site is back.

Stress: Excessive stress on the body can lead to back pain in people.

Smoking: Smokers are predisposed to lung diseases which often manifest as chronic coughs in the future. And chronic cough in people can lead to disk herniation which is one of the commonest causes of persistent back pain in people. Isolatedly, smoking can cause a reduction in the amount of blood getting to the spine, leading to osteoporosis (3).

Causes Of Back Pain

The following are the identified causes of back pain


When the muscles are strained, it often manifests as back pain and this usually happens as a result of improper lifting and wrong postures. Strain can also result from abnormally increased activity and stress in the back which often manifest after hard labor as back pain (4).

Muscle sprain or strain affecting the rhomboid muscles wil- cause a patient to manifest back pain under right shoulder blade (7).

Structura- problems

There are quite severa- structura- problems that wil- result in back pain. Some of these structura- problems are:

  1. a) Bulging disks: When the vertebra disk bulges out, it causes pressure on nerves which can lead to back pain in patients
  2. b) Ruptured disk: When back pain is serious, one of the causes is a ruptured vertebra- disk. When a disk ruptures, it collapses the vertebra- leading to pressure on the nerves, thereby manifesting as back pain.
  3. c) Sciatica: Sciatica is a complicated structura- pain that often results from either disk herniation or bulging, and causes a sharp pain that radiates from the buttocks to the posterior part of the leg.
  4. d) Spine curvature: A good example of an abnorma- curvature is seen in scoliosis, in which there is an S shape curve of the spine. Patients with scoliosis and other abnorma- curvatures of the spine often complain of back pain (5).


In osteoporosis, there is a reduction in the density of bone leading to thinning of bone tissues. When osteoporosis occurs, there can be a pathologica- fracture of the vertebrae which is a type of pain felt when back pain is serious.


Osteoarthritis of the vertebrae results in severe lower back pain. This is characterized by a reduction of the joint space and osteophyte formation which can be seen in back pain x-ray. Osteoarthritis can also cause patients to have back pain under right shoulder blade(4).

Spina- stenosis

When the spine is stenosed, there wil- be a reduction in the joint space which causes the collapse of the vertebrae putting pressure on the nerves. Degenerative diseases of the spine and disc are commonly responsible for spina- stenosis causing the disc, nerves, and spina- cord to be compressed under pressure.

When the nerves are compressed, it often manifests as weakness of the area being supplied by the nerves, numbness, and pains, such as severe back pain. The back pain in spina- stenosis is worse on walking or standing (6).

Medica- conditions

Some patients with certain medica- conditions complain of back pain at one point or the other. Examples of such medica- conditions associated with back pain are:

  1. a) Cholecystitis

Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gal- bladder which majorly causes abdomina- pain and is one of the surgica- causes of acute abdomen surgery. Although the gal- bladder is not located at the back of the patient, over time, it has been noticed that the abdomina- pain in cholecystitis is often referred to the back. Back pain under right shoulder blade is a referred pain from cholecystitis.

  1. b) Lung diseases

Specific lung diseases such as pneumonia and pulmonary embolism have been associated with back pain under the right shoulder blade. Also, lung cancer can cause pain in the back especially when there is a metastasis to the back in late-stage cancer diseases (7).

  1. c) Kidney infections

Infections affecting the rena- system and the urinary system can cause a patient to experience back pain near kidneys. Also, in pyelonephritis, a urinary tract infection involving the kidneys wil- cause a patient to have back pain vomiting, fever, and other urinary symptoms such as urinary frequency, pain while urinating that is dysuria, and other irritating urinary symptoms.

  1. d) Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition that affects the pancreas. Pancreatitis is one of the medica- causes of the acute abdomen that causes back pain and vomiting in patients. Back pain vomiting in pancreatitis is often associated with diarrhea and it is majorly a referred pain

Other causes of back pain and vomiting are kidney stones, bacteria- meningitis, gal- stones, and tumors of the spine.


Pregnancy is a physiologica- condition that also results in alteration in some norma- body functioning. Pregnant women often complain of vomiting and back pain especially when they are in the early stage of their pregnancy. Vomiting can be severe at a certain point and when it occurs in excess it is called hyperemesis gravidarum. However if back pain vomiting extends to the later stage of the pregnancy, such a patient should seek medica- attention (8).

Symptoms And Causes Of Back Pain

Back pain itself is a symptom. Therefore, the major complaint of the patient is that of pain felt at the back which can be characterized as dul- aching and sometimes radiates to other parts of the body such as the legs and buttocks.

Back pain can also be associated with other symptoms in different parts of the body especially when it is affecting a nerve or when it is occurring secondarily to an ongoing disease condition such as back pain near kidneys in a patient with acute or chronic kidney disease.

Back pain most often resolves on its own but if it begins to manifest alongside the following symptoms, then it is an indication to see a physician. Such symptoms are:

– Swelling at the site of pain

– Associated fever or pyrexia

– Associated leg pains

– Back pain not resolving at rest

– back pain secondary to trauma

– Associated difficulty in passing urine

– Feca- incontinence

– Back pain radiating to the ankles and feets

– Back pain associated with numbness

– Unexplained weight loss (5).

Diagnosis Of Back Pain When See A Doctor

Like every other medica- condition, before commencing treatment it is important to make an appropriate diagnosis of back pain especially if it is secondary to an underlying disease condition before treatment starts.

Making a diagnosis of back pain starts with an adequate history taking, and an examination of the back and other suspected systems affected, followed by a radiologica- and laboratory diagnosis.

A radiologica- or imaging test wil- be compulsory if any of the following is present in a patient:

– Presence of back pain from a traumatic injury

– Presence of an underlying medica- condition

– Pain at rest for a long duration

The best imaging studies for the back are either an x-ray, a CT scan, or an MRI.

  1. a) X-ray: X-ray is an imaging study done when the whole suspect of the pathology is the bone. With a plain radiograph, a back pain x-ray wil- show signs of osteoarthritis of the spine such as reduced joint space, subchondra- sclerosis, and osteophyte formation can be seen on back pain x-ray. Other abnormalities of the vertebrae can also be detected through a plain radiograph.
  2. b) CT scan or MRI: MRI in particular is best for detecting problems with the soft tissues such as the nerves, the muscles, tendons, and the ligaments. For example, an MRI wil- detect perfectly herniated discs or other problems with the soft tissues
  3. c) Bone scan: Bone scan uses a tracer and a camera lens to detect any exact problem with bones. Tumors and compression fractures are detectable with the aid of a bone scan
  4. d) Electromyography: EMG is used to evaluate the muscle’s electrica- impulses in patients with suspected issues relating to the nerves.
  5. e) Blood test: Blood tests are done to rule out secondary causes of back pain such as kidney infection, a complete blood count can be done to ascertain the tota- number of white blood cells which may be a pointer to an active infection process in the kidney or in the urinary tract, or even in the blood, otherwise called sepsis (5).

Treatment For Back Pain

The treatment of back pain usually involves the use of medica- and surgica- approaches as wel- as lifestyle modifications. Most often than not, the exact management plan is usually designed to treat the actua- cause of back pain. Below are the treatment measures:

Medica- treatment

Medica- treatment of back pain involves the use of medications and most times, the majority of patients with back pain do not need extensive treatment measures more than medications. Examples of such medications are:

  1. a) Non-steroida- anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): NSAIDs such as ibuprofen (Advil) and naproxen (Aleve) are usually prescribed for patients presenting with back pains as they are potent pain relievers. However, they should be used with caution as they have side effects that can affect the patient.
  2. b) Topica- ointments: most times these ointments are applied directly on the back and their active ingredients are usually ibuprofen and lidocaine to help provide loca- relief of the pain. They are available in the form of spray, gel, or patches.
  3. c) Muscle relaxants: in suspected cases of back pain occurring due to spasms of the muscles at the back, muscle relaxants can be given to relax the muscles and prevent frequent contractions of the muscles.
  4. d) Steroids: preferably, when back pain is serious, a steroid injection is often recommended if there are suspected inflammation or nerve injuries.
  5. e) Opioids: just as in steroids, opioids are best used when back pain is serious because of the powerfu- actions of steroids in relieving pain. A good example is oxycodone, which should however be used with caution to avoid side effects.
  6. f) Antidepressants: amitriptyline, a potent anti-depressant can be employed in the treatment of psychosomatic back pain in menta- health patients.

Surgica- treatment

Surgery is not a usua- go-to treatment in patients with back pain. Surgery is usually indicated in the following cases:

  • – Persistent back pain at rest
  • – Failure of medica- treatment
  • – Structura- abnormalities not responsive to medica- treatment
  • – Nerve compression injuries
  • – Injuries to the spina- cord with loss of function (4).

Lifestyle modifications

  1. a) Daily exercises: One of the best ways to get rid of back pain is by regular exercises or increase activity. The physician or a trained and licensed physiotherapist is in the best place to recommend the required exercise.
  2. b) Manua- therapy: This is similar to a spa visit treatment where a trained therapist wil- work on the muscles and joints of the back, massage them and apply pressure where necessary to improve their function
  3. c) Cognitive behavior therapy: This is otherwise known as CBT and it is often employed in patients, especially known menta- health patients to help them cope better with pain
  4. d) Ice or hot compress: Sometimes, it may be required to apply a hot compress or a cold compress to the painfu- site at the back. But this wil- be dictated by the physica- therapist (9).

What Back Pain Can Cause – Common Causes Of Back Pain

What back pain can cause when not adequately managed in times includes the following:

– Difficulty swallowing

– Difficulty with passing urine

– Numbness especially around the genitals

– Weakness of the lower limbs

– Chronic and persistent pain

Prevention Of Back Pain and Lower Back Pain

To prevent back pain or to prevent a recurrence of back pain, the following measures should be adopted:

– Adequate and regular exercises

– Avoid excess weight by eating healthy and keeping fit

– Avoid or quit smoking as the case may be

– Eat healthy by consuming foods rich in calcium and vitamin D

– Maintaining a healthy posture (3,5).



What Prostate Does and Prostate BPH

what prostate does


The Prostate Gland: Anatomy, What Prostate Does, Diseases And Treatments

The prostate gland is a reproductive organ seen in males. It is also the largest accessory reproductive male organ. It is situated inferiorly to the bladder and it produces enzymes, the proteolytic enzymes that help to fine-tune the semen and keep it in a fluid state for easy movement around the female reproductive system after ejaculation for fertilization to occur.

This article will focus on discussing the prostate gland, what prostate does, and its clinical relevance (1).

Anatomy Of The Prostate Gland

The prostate gland is a walnut-size gland located immediately below the bladder neck, above it is the urethral sphincter externally, and the levator ani muscle is located inferiorly and laterally to the prostate gland.

Behind the prostate is the ampulla of the rectum which allows for a good digital rectal examination to be done effectively in assessing the prostate by a physician. The prostate gland contains ducts called the prostatic ducts through which the proteolytic enzymes are secreted, passing through the prostatic urethra before releasing it into the semen just before ejaculation occurs.

Clinically, the prostate gland has been divided into three zones histologically, these are:

  • – Central zone
  • – Transitional zone
  • – Peripheral zone

The central zone: The central zone is made up of one quarter, that is 25% of the entire prostate gland volume.

Transitional zone: The transitional zone amount to 10% of the total prostate gland volume and it goes around the urethral centrally. Benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostrate bph, commonly occurs at this transitional zone.

Peripheral zone: The peripheral zone is located behind and amounts to 65% of the total prostate gland volume. The peripheral zone is prone to a high level of inflammatory changes which has been linked by research to the high rate of prostate carcinoma occurring at the peripheral zone. During a digital rectal examination, DRE examines the prostate, the palpable area is usually the peripheral zone.

– There is a fourth zone, scientifically referred to as the fibromuscular stroma, and has been argued not to be present in every prostate. The fibromuscular stroma is situated directly in front of the prostate and has a connection with the urogenital region, particularly the urogenital diaphragm (2).

What Prostate Does

There are quite several functions the prostate performed, however, it is not an organ required to stay alive as a man can live long with or without a prostate. But, the prostate gland is required for reproductive function. Some of its functions medically are:

  • – Sperm production

The main function of the prostate gland is the production and secretion of prostatic fluid being transported to the semen. The prostate is responsible for the production of one-quarter of the total fluids that make up semen. The remaining 75% comes from the seminal vesicles and the testicles.

The fluid component of the semen ensures the free transport of sperm through the urethra toward the egg for fertilization to occur. The fluid from the prostate is mainly acidic, however, the other components of the semen make it basic (alkaline), another to protect the sperm from the acidic nature of the vagina which can harm the sperm and render it inactive.

  • – Closure of urethral

Part of what prostate does is to ensure the closure of the urethra to permit only sperm movement during ejaculation. During ejaculation when contraction of the prostate takes place, it leads to the closure of the orifice lying between the bladder and the urethra permitting only the semen to be expelled at the time. Biologically, this information expatriate why it is difficult to ejaculate while urinating simultaneously.

  • – Metabolism of hormones

In other, for the prostate to effectively perform its functions, it requires the use of testosterone, which is the male sex hormone. The enzyme 5-alpha reductase possessed by the prostate will help to synthesize the dihydrotestosterone from testosterone which is required for the development of the prostate gland and other secondary sexual characteristics (1).

Common diseases of the prostate gland: Prostate Cancer and Enlarged Prostate

The following are common diseases associated with the prostate gland:

– Prostatitis

– Prostate BPH, Beningn prostatic hyperplasia

– Prostate cancer

– Prostate with calcification (3).

1. Prostate conditions, such as Prostatitis

Inflammation of the prostate that usually occurs as a result of an infectious process is termed prostatitis. Prostatitis is a common disease among men, especially in middle age, and about 50% of men will be affected by prostatitis in their lifetime. Prostatitis is not an automatic risk factor for developing other prostate diseases.

Symptoms of prostatitis

The followings are the symptoms and signs often manifested by patients with prostatitis

– Difficulty in urinating

– Dysuria, which is pain while passing urine

– Fever, and chills

– Body pain

– Low back pain

– Lower abdominal pain

– Suprapubic pain

– Sometimes, pain in the groin area

– Urethra discharge

– Low libido

– Erectile dysfunction

– Pain during ejaculation

Types of prostatitis and treatment

Acute bacterial prostatitis

Acute bacterial prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate that started suddenly, by a bacteria pathogen, and is usually characterized by severe pain and fever. Sometimes, the patient can present with bloody urine and hematuria.

Acute bacterial prostatitis is not a common presentation at the clinic because most patients don’t present early. However, when it is picked earlier, it is the easiest to treat.

Prostate-specific antigen level, PSA should be done to screen out other prostate diseases, although the PSA level in prostatitis can also be mildly elevated.

Most patients with acute prostatitis will do well on antibiotics medication for one to two weeks and the dose should be gradually tapered over time. And once treatment is successful, symptoms will subside and the PSA level will also gradually return to normal values

Chronic bacterial prostatitis

Chronic bacterial prostatitis often occurs from a poorly treated acute infection and the symptoms are often not specific as most of the patients present with recurrent infections of the bladder.

Treatment in chronic bacterial prostatitis is usually long-term compared to acute prostatitis. It should be treated for as long as three months till symptoms start subsiding and drugs thereafter should be tapered gradually.

Chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men

Chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a common type of prostatitis in men with the pathophysiology not well understood. It is not limited to middle age me, chronic pelvic pain syndrome can be seen in men of any age, as low as teenage years.

The pain is often described to be dull aching located around the groin or suprapubic region, on microscopy studies, infectious pathogens may be seen but bacteria are almost always not present.

Medication for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain syndrome is not limited to antibiotics, analgesics to ease pain can be given, especially NSAIDs, also patients can be placed on an alpha blocker to enhance the relaxation of the pelvic muscles to aid free and easier passage of urine.

Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis

In the asymptomatic type, patients do not present with any typical symptom of prostatitis, it is therefore usually detected during routine investigations such as in the management of infertility or routine screening for prostate carcinoma.

Can prostate be removed in the treatment of prostatitis? Prostatitis is not an indication of prostatectomy as it is an inflammatory condition that can solely be treated with the use of antibiotics and analgesics (4).

2. Prostate problem, such as Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

Prostate BPH also referred to as an enlarged kidney is a medical condition gotten via histological diagnosis and is described to occur when there is an increase in the number of the prostatic cellular element.

When the prostate is enlarged, it causes the bladder to be obstructed thereby causing retention of urine. Increased urinary retention will pull more string on the kidney and causes renal functions to be affected as well.

Prostate bph occurs with aging in men. Research showed that 50% of men in the united states manifest signs of prostate bph by 60 years of age and this increases to 90% from 85 years upwards.

Symptoms of prostate bph

The symptoms often manifested by patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy have been termed lower urinary tract symptoms, commonly called LUTS. It is worthy of importance to note that not all men that present with prostate bph will have LUTS and not all patients presenting to the clinic with LUTS have prostate bph.

The common lower urinary tract symptoms seen in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy are:

Frequency: Urinary frequency is a very common presenting complaint in patients with prostate bph. There is an increasing need to visit the toilet more during the day to urinate. And when this occurs at night it is called nocturia.

Urgency: Patients with urinary urgency have a sudden immediate need to urinate and followed by uncontrolled loss of urine if delayed.

Hesitancy: Hesitancy is the opposite of urgency. Patients with hesitancy have difficulty initiating the micturition process. It is sometimes interrupted and may have to involve straining and poor urine stream.

The feeling of incomplete bladder emptying: Shortly or immediately after urinating, patients with BPH have a feeling that the bladder has not been emptied and they need to do so again.

Straining: This means there is a need to apply force from within to push the urine out of the bladder.

Dribbling: As a result of the weak stream of urine floor, there is an aftermath loss of a small amount of urine from the urethra subjectively.

Erectile dysfunction: Studies have revealed that patients with prostate bph and manifesting the LUTS are often compliant with erectile dysfunction after a long time. Hence, it is important to take a sexual history when meeting a patient with prostate bph for the first time (5).

Diagnosis of benign prostatic hypertrophy

To make an accurate diagnosis of prostate bph, it starts with the history of the patient, by asking the patient if any of the above symptoms are present, for how long, and what has been done so far.

A general physical examination of the patient as well as a digital rectal examination, DRE will help in making the diagnosis of prostate bph. To perform a digital rectal examination, the physician will insert his finger inside the rectum of the patient to feel for the prostate and examine the organ appropriately, with a DRE, the physician will be able to have an idea if the problem is benign or cancerous (6).

The next step is to do investigations to ascertain the diagnosis of benign prostatic hypertrophy. The following investigations will help in making the diagnosis of a prostate bph:

Prostate biopsy

Commonly, a prostate biopsy is a procedure done to take part of the prostate tissue for histological diagnosis. With a prostate biopsy, the physician will be able to tell if the prostate condition is cancerous or in a benign state.

Kinds of prostate biopsy procedure

There are two types of prostate biopsy procedures:

  • – Transrectal prostate biopsy: The transrectal needle passes via the rectal wall and it is the most common type employed worldwide
  • – Transperineal prostate biopsy: The needle is inserted via the perineal wall into the prostate to take out a small portion of the tissue for examination and histology.

How prostate biopsy is done

To perform the prostate biopsy procedure, the patient will be placed in the right position, lying down with the knee position facing the chest. The area will be cleaned thoroughly to ensure an aseptic procedure after which the ultrasound probe will be inserted first through the rectum with the aid of a gel, to guide the transrectal needle.

The images from the ultrasound will serve as a guide for the needle about to be inserted, after which local anesthesia is injected to prevent the patient from feeling the pain. The images also guided the spring-loaded transrectal needle that will be inserted to take the required number of samples.

Generally, an appropriately done prostate biopsy should be able to take about ten to twelve different samples before ending the procedure. This procedure is not usually comfortable for the patient, hence, adequate explanation and consent should be taken from the patient before a prostate biopsy. The above-detailed information is how prostate biopsy is done in an ideal setting (7).

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

Although PSA is not a specific investigation for prostate bph, it is usually done to screen for prostate cancer in men. However, studies reveal that men at risk of prostate cancer are also predisposed to prostate bph. That is, their risk factors are similar (5).

A PSA value of 4ng/ml is considered to be within the normal range. However, there have been cases where an individual within the normal range also have histology result showing they have cancer while there are people with an elevated PSA level without cancer (8).

Prostate volume

The prostate volume is usually calculated using the prostate volume calculator. The prostate volume calculator is a software-developed tool used to determine an actual prostate size. It requires the use of the length, height, and breadth of the prostate.

Aside from the prostate, it can also be used to determine the size of the bladder and ellipsoidal lesions. In BPH, the prostate volume may be high due to hypertrophy. The prostate volume calculator is used to determine both the ellipsoid and bullet volume of the prostate gland. It can help to differentiate prostate cancer from prostate bph (9).

Other investigations required in patients with BPH are:

Blood test: This will help to check the blood level of the patient as well as rule out infections in case of suspected prostatitis

Electrolyte, urea, and creatinine: These tests will help to check the kidney functions of the patient because a patient with bladder outlet obstruction from a prostate bph is at risk of kidney disease.

Treatment of prostate BPH

Watchful waiting

This is usually done in young patients, patients with mild to moderate symptoms severity, and patients who have symptoms but without complications.


  1. a) Alpha-blockers: This works by relaxing the smooth muscles of the prostate and the bladder neck. A good example is tamsulosin (Flomax).
  2. b) 5-alpha reductase inhibitor: These medications work to drastically reduce the size of the prostate. An example is finasteride (Proscar).
  3. c) Combination therapy: This involves the use of both an alpha-blocker and a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor.
  4. d) Tadalafil: This medication is used in the treatment of associated erectile dysfunction.


The following surgical procedures can be performed in a patient with prostate bph:

  1. a) Transurethral prostate resection: Resectoscope is inserted via the urethra to get rid of the enlarged prostate tissue.
  2. b) Transurethral incision of the prostate: An incision is made around the prostate to expand the lumen of the urethral in other to improve the urine stream.
  3. c) Transurethral electrovaporization: An electrode is used on the prostate tissue with the aid of heat, to reduce the size.
  4. d) Laser therapy: Laser is used to reduce the size and effect of the prostate.
  5. e) Prostate urolift: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that helps to separate the enlarged prostate around the prostatic urethra so that the urethral is more patent and urination or micturition is made easier. A special urology instrument called urolift is used in carrying out this procedure (6).

3. Prostate cancer – talk with your doctor

Prostate cancer is commonly seen in American men and the risk of having prostate cancer is dependent on aging, a family history of prostate cancer, being black, and consuming a diet rich in fat.

The diagnosis of prostate cancer follows the same pattern as in prostate bph. From examination during DRE, the physician may feel for a hard, lobulated, lumpy mass that may or may not be tender (3).

prostate bph

Similar investigations are usually carried out. The PSA level is usually very high and prostate volume is significantly elevated. The prostate 4k test is usually required in investigated patients with an abnormal DRE. The prostate 4k test has four components which are the total PSA level and values for the free PSA level. Others are the intact PSA level and the Human kallikrein 2 level. The four tests together comprise the prostate 4k test (10).

The definitive investigation for the diagnosis of prostate cancer is the use of prostate biopsy. The histology result from a prostate biopsy gives the final verdict on the diagnosis.

Which prostate cancer treatment is the best?

The treatment for prostate cancer depends on whether the cancer is still limited to the prostate or has spread to other areas.

The treatment for prostate cancer includes watchful waiting, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormonal therapy.

Can prostate be removed in prostate cancer? Yes, especially in an early stage of cancer when it is still limited to the prostate, a prostatectomy can be done to remove the prostate, after which the procedure is followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy (3).

4. Prostate with calcification

Prostate with calcification is commonly seen in men from the age of 50 years. This can occur single or clustered together. The majority of the prostate with calcifications seen in men were recorded during incidental findings during routine checkups. When symptomatic, they present alongside urinary symptoms like dysuria, hematuria, and obstructive symptoms (11).


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.


  1. 5.
  2. 6.


  1. 8.
  2. 9.
  3. 10.
  4. 11.

Continue reading “What Prostate Does and Prostate BPH”

Amazing Chiropractic Facts

chiropractic facts


Chiropractic Health, Chiropractic Facts and Chiropractic Statistics

According to statistics, there are approximately 60 million Americans who have some form of chronic pain (1). The second most common reason Americans visit their physician is for low back discomfort.

Over the years, the use of opioids and prescription analgesics has increased with the rise in the prevalence of pain. Within this same time frame, visits to healthcare professionals declined somewhat, which may indicate that patients prefer to treat pain with pharmaceutical methods rather than provider-based non-pharmacological treatment.

Finding alternatives to prescription painkillers is what many people are interested in. One possible pain-management option is chiropractic care, particularly if you have neck or back pain.

What Is Chiropractic Care and what we should know about chiropractic?

Chiropractic health is a recognized branch of medicine that places a strong emphasis on the body’s capacity to self-heal. Manual therapy is generally used as part of treatment, frequently including spinal manipulation from a qualified expert. These adjustments assist in realigning your joints and provide pain relief that might have been caused by impairments and blockages that often creates symptoms such as muscle spasms, inflammation, pain, tension, numbness, and joint mobility restrictions.

arthritis nodes

Treatment that involves chiropractors helps reduce the pain that may occur in your joints, muscles, bones, cartilage, and connective tissue. Depending on the specific pain or spine related issues you are experiencing, getting a chiropractic health care will help concentrate on various regions and parts of your body including the spine.

Although chiropractic and acupuncture care are similar in several ways, and the combination of the two therapies may help treat some disorders. Generally, chiropractors are more likely to treat your ailments by physically manipulating you. Physical therapists frequently place a greater emphasis on stretching and exercise-based injury rehabilitation.

Facts About Chiropractic Care and Acupuncture

These two natural holistic approaches in traditional medicine for the treatment of pain may seem similar but they are not. While chiropractic and acupuncture methods have non-invasive healing origins, their differences run much deeper.

Acupuncture involves inserting tiny needles into the skin to stimulate specific locations on the body, which are subsequently moved manually. It is said to function by controlling the body’s “qi,” or energy flow. Acupuncture is one of the fundamental principles of traditional Chinese medicine, this practice has been practiced for hundreds of years in Asian nations. Alternative medicine professionals

frequently suggest acupuncture for the treatment of chronic pain, such as joint pain, back pain, and neck pain.

Apart from the needles, the problem with acupuncture is that reports of its benefits are inconsistent and often subjective in nature. This is because two individuals can be treated for the same ailment, and one person may experience significant improvement while the other experiences minimal to no improvement.

On the other hand, Chiropractic has more proven results, with many patients reporting remarkable physical changes after the Chiropractor care profession treatment. It is difficult to argue against visibly fixed posture and being free from pain.

Acupuncture does not offer the same holistic lifestyle analysis, which means you might have to go through duplicate treatments to maintain pain relief. Acupuncturists prescribe herbal supplements or remedies while chiropractors have access to pain relief medications and management prescriptions.

Fun facts: 125 years of Chiropractic Vs Massage, Are They The Same?

Although their methods may look similar, chiropractors and massage therapists have completely different approaches. Both of these can aid in reducing the discomfort that is impairing your quality of life. Yet, while massage therapists are primarily focused on the muscles, chiropractic care addresses the spine and its posture. A messages therapist uses various massage methods with the help of oils and lotions to help relieve stiffness, muscle pain, and tension. This increases the flow of blood to various parts of the body and aids recovery.

You may wonder if it is necessary to visit both a chiropractor and a massage therapist for optimum benefit, the answer to this question is that your physician should help you make this informed decision because it depends on the uniqueness of your situation.

Back Pain – When To Visit A Chiropractor

When to see a chiropractor? It is advantageous to visit a chiropractor as it significantly enhances your physical and mental health. The truth is that many people only consider visiting a chiropractor after something has gone wrong or when they are unable to stand their pain symptoms any longer. It should not be like this. A chiropractor can assist in preventing issues before they arise. Even though most individuals know that they should visit a chiropractor if they are having back discomfort, there are other signs to be aware of. These are ten indications that you ought to visit a chiropractor:

1. Persistent back pain – benefits of chiropractic care

If you are experiencing persistent back pain, this is one of the easiest ways to tell if you need to visit a chiropractic wellness center. That is discomfort that you have been feeling for more than three months. Back pain can be caused by a variety of things, including accidents, aging, arthritis, sitting posture, the kind of work you do, how much time you spend standing up each day, the type of bed you sleep in, and the kind of employment you perform. Without the use of invasive surgery or pain medications, a chiropractor can relieve your discomfort.

2. Restricted Motion Range

You should visit a chiropractor if you discover that your arms, hips, legs, or neck are less flexible than they once were or if they do not rotate or turn as far in either direction as they once did. The body’s range of motion is increased, discomfort is reduced, and joint friction is avoided with chiropractic adjustments that realign the bones and joints. The body works best when its range of motion is normal.

3. After an accident or Trauma

Accidents or trauma caused by a collision involving cars or motorcycles can result in significant injuries that can only be treated by a chiropractor with experience. Several chiropractors who focus on treating auto accident injuries are skilled at identifying and treating a wide range of injuries.

Amazing Chiropractic Facts

The force of the collision after a car accident can cause your spine and other joints of the body to fall out of alignment. A chiropractor can significantly reduce the pain caused by a car accident injury by adjusting and realigning these joints. A medical massage vs acupuncture therapy can be used to treat any following pain and inflammation.

Chiropractic care can also contribute to enhancing the range of motion and mobility, which might be limited following an accident. This can quicken your overall healing and recovery time after an accident and help you avoid injuries from occurring by tackling any structural deficiencies or weaknesses that could have occurred or been enhanced by the accident.

4. Sitting for long periods and spinal manipulation for spinal pain

If your job or school requires you to sit for long periods, especially hunched over a keyboard, it is not uncommon to wind up with very poor posture. When using a laptop for extended periods, you frequently have to reposition your head to see the screen well. This requires you to maintain a stooped or slouched posture, which tightens your neck and chest muscles and invariably places additional pressure on your cervical spine.

The pressure can cause the discs and bones to shift enough to cause problems such as a slipped or herniated disc.

A chiropractor can make sure your spine is aligned correctly, so you do not run into any future problems.

5. Treatment of headache

Many conditions such as spinal or neck misalignment, dehydration, lack of oxygen, and malnutrition can all result in headaches. A chiropractor can help with headache relief and blood flow improvement, therefore enhancing the amount of oxygen delivered to the brain.

According to the research done by the American Chiropractic Association, for many people who suffer migraines or headaches of any sort, performing a spine manipulation can be a successful headache therapy alternative.

Chiropractic adjustments can relieve both chronic and short-term neck pain, which can lessen your likelihood of getting headaches of any kind, including migraines, tension headaches, and other types.

Most chiropractors also do this by altering the position of the spine using specific techniques to enhance spinal function and reduce nervous system stress. Hence, your body can operate more properly, and your risk of building tension that leads to headaches.

6. 125 years of Chiropractic Profession for Muscle or Joint Pain

For most people when they have joint or muscle pain, their first instinct is to take pain medications. Some joint or muscle pain originates from musculoskeletal misalignment and so your first instinct shouldn’t be to grab that ibuprofen, rather, it should be to visit a chiropractor.

Chiropractic therapy is based on the idea that when your spine’s bones are perfectly aligned, your nerve system functions at its peak, benefiting not only your muscles and joints but also the rest of your body’s systems. It is frequently used to treat musculoskeletal discomfort.

Chiropractic treatment is a type of manual therapy, which means that doctors administer care using their hands and other specialized equipment.

What is Chiropractic Traction?

Chiropractic traction is a method used by chiropractors when they feel the need to slightly move the vertebrae apart. The discs of the spine act as a cushion between the vertebrae, preventing the bones from rubbing against one another. Also, this space allows nerves to leave the spine and pass through to various organs in the body. The body feels at peace when the vertebrae in your spine are adequately aligned and the discs are in good condition.

A herniated disc results when the disc is damaged, which can happen after an accident or trauma to the backbone. This frequently results in direct vertebral pressure being applied to the nerves, which almost always causes pain. Traction therapy is done in such a way that the vertebrae where the disc is damaged are carefully pulled apart. People who have gone through the process attest to the fact that It is painless. Separating the discs slightly allows for some healing and often results in immediate pain relief. This will aid the disc in receiving more supplies and initiating the healing process (2).

Chiropractic vs Orthopedic, What Is The Difference?

Chiropractors and orthopedic doctors both specialize in the human musculoskeletal system. This system includes the muscles, bones, joints, tendons, nerves, and ligaments. To be able to move with ease, this complex system requires all of its parts to be healthy and work together. Chiropractors diagnose and treat musculoskeletal diseases, as well as the effects of the disorders on the nervous system. On the other hand, Orthopedists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, disorders, and injuries affecting the skeleton, muscles, joints, and other supporting structures.

Can Chiropractic Help With Ear Infection?

Chiropractic for ear infections is more common than you think. Chiropractors assist in controlling and reducing the swelling and pain caused by an ear infection. Chiropractic for ear infections is a non-invasive and safe alternative to prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications, which are often suggested to treat the pain and swelling brought on by ear infections (4).

To relieve pain and improve the function of the affected joint and the nervous system, chiropractic adjustments are used to repair joint misalignments in the spine and other parts of the body. A chiropractor will create a chiropractic adjustment plan during a session that focuses on any joint or spine misalignments or obstructions.

This procedure helps to decrease swelling and pressure, letting the fluid in the ear flow more freely. This causes your body to better manage inflammation and pain.

Amazing Chiropractic Facts or facts about chiropractors you didn’t know

Adults and children who want to see a doctor of chiropractic for neck and back pain may want to read below facts about chiropractic or facts about chiropractors. Here are some chiropractic facts you didn’t know about the benefits of chiropractic care.

1. It’s a chiropractic fact that Chiropractors are doctors

Some people think chiropractors are less trained than doctors. That’s a fallacy. They both spend almost the same number of years in school. The only difference is while medical doctors go ahead to focus on surgery and pharmaceuticals, chiropractors further on neurology and nutrition. A chiropractic fact is that three in four chiropractic patients often see a health care profession along with a chiropractic profession for their back and neck pain.

2. It’s chiropractic statistics that Chiropractic care can prevent illness

Another Chiropractic fact is that chiropractic care can help prevent diseases. You do not have to be in pain before consulting a chiropractor. Remember that this method decreases inflammation and boosts brain activity which in turn boosts your immune system. Regular visits to your chiropractor can result in fewer visits relating to flu, cold and sore throats.

3. A chiropractic clinic is Great for Pregnant Women

This is a safe and beneficial practice for pregnant women. Chiropractic care adjusts and balances the uterus and pelvis. This creates more room for the fetus and mother. It can also eliminate lower back pain pregnant women experience.

4. A doctor of Chiropractic may Improves Brain Function

Chiropractic facts are numerous, but a common one is that brain activity increases a chiropractic adjustment. This is because the spine is connected to the nervous system in the brain. There’s better control of bodily functions, regulated hormones, less inflammation, and improved muscle strength.

5. Another fun facts about chiropractic patients

Although chiropractic patients may not fully know about chiropractic or understand the benefits of chiropractic care, yet chiropractors treat more sports injuries than the medical doctors.

How To Find A Chiropractor

Some chiropractors are found in wellness centers where they establish their business or in health centers. Chiropractic and wellness go hand in hand. To be able to choose the best Chiropractic and wellness center, find out whether the chiropractor has won any honors. Spend some time reading their reviews as well. Do they receive a lot of positive feedback? Are their reviews generic or do they contain content that demonstrates how much their patients genuinely trust them and how well cared for they were? Also, don’t focus only on positive reviews. Check to see if they have negative reviews, read the reasons why they were, and try to determine if the chiropractor attempted to fix the issue.


Benefits of Turmeric for Joints

turmeric for joints


Turmeric for Joints: Turmeric And Arthritis, Benefits, And Side Effects

Turmeric is a tall plant commonly seen in central America and Asia. It is also called the golden spice and in India, it was termed the Indian saffron. The part of turmeric harvested for consumption and commonly sold is the ground root part, and the spicy golden yellow color procreates the fantastic color of curry powder. Safe to say curry gives turmeric vibes!

Curcumin is the yellow chemical and the principal curcuminoid of turmeric. Therefore, turmeric is also referred to as curcumin. Turmeric extract or curcumin extract has been investigated in various scientific studies for its anti-inflammatory properties to reduce arthritis pain and knee osteoarthritis. Therefore, it is safe to say that turmeric and osteoarthritis currently carry a deep interest by the scientific community to reduce pain and inflammation related to arthritis symptoms.

Aside it has been introduced as a major ingredient in curry powder, turmeric has also been sold commercially because of its health benefits. The turmeric benefits have necessitated it being processed into capsules, tea, and extract for convenient consumption.

Ever wondered about the powerful ingredient in turmeric that gives it away for its countless health benefits? Its curcumin. Turmeric benefits such as the turmeric for joint pains, turmeric for osteoarthritis, and even the turmeric with milk benefits are all made possible because of curcumin.

Turmeric and curcumin are not the same words and should not be used interchangeably. Turmeric is a root plant with plenty of components and benefits while curcumin is an active ingredient seen in turmeric.

Recently, orthodox medicine started investigations to analyze the usefulness of turmeric as an analgesic for pain relief and as a healing agent. This article will explore the health benefits of turmeric, the importance of turmeric for joint diseases such as arthritis, and other benefits turmeric is good for (1).

What Is Turmeric

Turmeric is a golden yellow/orange root plant commonly used as a spice because of its benefits of adding flavor, and color and its nutritional benefits in foods. Turmeric is often mistaken for ginger but turmeric is different from ginger, just only belongs to the same root plant as ginger.

Years ago, turmeric was discovered in the root of an Asian plant and was first used as a spice by Asians. In China and India, turmeric benefits were further inculcated into their traditional remedy agents after their impact has been seen by the ancient doctors (2).

Curcuminoids Compounds In Turmeric

Years ago, scientists went on to research the medical agent present in this plant root responsible for the turmeric benefits. The medicinal compounds present in turmeric are called curcuminoids and the most active one in turmeric is curcumin. Curcumin is the highlight of turmeric ingredients and has been responsible for its popular anti-inflammatory as well as antioxidant properties.

Nutritional Contents Of Turmeric

The United states department of agriculture otherwise called USDA studied the nutritional content present in one tablespoon of a turmeric powder, and this investigation revealed that a tablespoon of turmeric powder contains the following:

  • – A total of 29 calories
  • – Carbohydrate…..6.31 grams
  • – Fiber….2.1 grams
  • – Protein…..0.91 grams
  • – Fat…0.31 grams
  • – Sugar…0.3 grams.

A tablespoon of turmeric powder also contains the following vitamins and minerals per daily needs:

  • – Vitamin c…3%
  • .- 5%
  • – Iron…………..16%
  • – .26% (1).

The Relationship Between Turmeric And Arthritis

In the united states, arthritis is the commonest disease of the joint, and over the years, physicians have realized that medications alone do not solve the problem of arthritis. It involves the use of medicine, lifestyle modifications, and supplements, and in severe cases, surgical intervention is needed.

A study revealed that for adults above 60 years in the united states, an average of 10% of men will present with symptoms of arthritis, while in women there is an increase of 13% presenting to the clinics with symptoms suggestive of arthritis.

Another work published in 2006 by the center for disease control, CDC, revealed that about 20% of American citizens in the united states complain of knee pain and this sometimes ranges from mild pain to complicated knee pain accompanied by loss of function.

Studies carried out in India have furthermore supported the claim that there are health benefits of turmeric for joint diseases after the research revealed that turmeric use helps to relieve joint pain and that benefits of turmeric for osteoarthritis are also present. The spice is commonly used in ayurvedic medicine because of the turmeric benefits for health made possible by its active ingredient curcumin.

Turmeric is good for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and joint pain because of the following properties:

– Anti-inflammatory effects

A study was carried out where the effects of turmeric-curcumin were compared to a popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac. This study which was randomized used 139 individuals as a sample.

This group of people is patients with knee pain. Half of them were given 50mg of diclofenac morning and night while the other half was given curcumin from turmeric three times daily. After a few days, the study revealed that both groups experienced significant relief in their knee pain.

Another advantage of curcumin in these patients is that curcumin is well tolerated due to its natural source compared to diclofenac. Hence, patients who took curcumin had little or no side effects when compared to those given diclofenac tablets, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Studies have been done and are still ongoing to evaluate the health benefit of turmeric and curcumin in the health management of osteoarthritis. In these studies, many of them were compared to the effect of a placebo in patients with osteoarthritis. Most of the patients given curcumin experienced a drastic reduction in their symptoms and some of them also experienced relief in their functions because they were able to go back to their daily activities.

However, the right dosage to be taken in the use of turmeric for osteoarthritis has not been ascertained, and it is advisable to use it with caution to avoid potential side effects (3).

– Joint pain relief

Turmeric has been used on several occasions as a potent pain reliever and hence has been used in several cases of joint pain to relieve the pain and discomfort associated with joint diseases.

Studies have revealed that the pain-relieving effects of curcumin have been compared to ibuprofen in relieving pain in patients with joint diseases and arthritis. Although it is difficult to ascertain the dose of turmeric that will help in the management of pain, however, 800mg of turmeric has been used and seems to work fine in people (1).

– Antibacterial effects

Turmeric is good for the treatment of bacterial infections of joints and skin. Turmeric is active against staphylococcus infections and acne problems. Although, turmeric supplements should not stop a patient from consulting a doctor for medical treatment as well.

Other Health Benefits Of Turmeric for Joints

A. Treatment of high blood pressure

Elevated blood pressure is one of the leading chronic diseases in India and the world at large. Hypertension is a risk factor for major cardiovascular diseases like stroke, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and even chronic kidney diseases. Hence, it is important to keep a check on blood pressure to prevent its complications which can lead to death as well.

There are medications, and antihypertensive agents available for the treatment of hypertension, however, in the management of hypertension, lifestyle modification is also very important such as exercises, diets, and the use of supplements. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric has been beneficial in the treatment of high blood pressure. Hence, this explains the reason why turmeric spice is included in almost all Indian dishes.

The following are the health benefit of turmeric to lower blood pressure:

  • – Curcumin lowers blood pressure

Curcumin is an antioxidant agent present in turmeric and studies have revealed that curcumin helps to lower elevated blood pressure. The antioxidant property it possesses helps it in performing the task of reducing high blood pressure. Curcumin also helps to protect the body against vascular disorders.

  • – Prevention of arterial damage

The use of turmeric to lower blood pressure is beyond just reducing high blood pressure, it has also been found to help prevent and treat arterial complications from hypertension.

In high blood pressure, plaques can be formed in the wall of the arteries leading to arteriosclerosis which will cause blood flow to different parts of the body like the brain and the heart to be reduced. The curcumin present in turmeric, when eaten will also help to prevent and to some extent reverse some effects of these complications.

  • – Regulation of cholesterol and blood glucose level

Aside from its use in hypertension, turmeric benefits are also seen in the regulation of high blood glucose levels and cholesterol levels. Hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes mellitus are chronic systemic diseases that can affect the heart and the brain and if not well managed, can also lead to death. However, turmeric has helped mitigate the effects of this disease condition (4).

B. Improves the health of the liver

Turmeric is an excellent spice that helps to protect the liver from diseases. Turmeric with milk benefits the liver in quite several ways and hence, it has been referred to as the liver tonic! It performs detoxification and purification functions by protecting the liver from all sorts of toxins.

C. Prevention of cancer

Turmeric milk has anticarcinogenic properties that help to prevent the occurrence of cancer in the body by inhibiting cell proliferation. Turmeric with milk benefits also cancer patients by slowing down ongoing cell proliferation and preventing new cancers as well.

It has also been active in the prevention of prostate cancer, common cancer seen in men of middle age. Also when used alongside medical treatment in cancer patients, it helps to slow down and lower the side effects of chemotherapy.

D. Turmeric for joints and bone health

Benefits of turmeric for joints and bone health have been widely studied. Turmeric with milk also helps in keeping the bone strong and healthy. In younger ones and fracture it helps to enhance bone development and the formation of bone cells. Turmeric is rich in vitamin D and calcium, and these are essential substances required to keep the bone healthy and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. It also helps to prevent stiffness of joints in patients with arthritis while also reducing joint pain (5).

Introducing Turmeric In Diets

In places like India, there are turmeric restaurants where turmeric is being used in dishes and cuisines. Turmeric is a versatile spice with good flavor and enticing color that makes it palatable in foods.

Turmeric can be added to various meals in different ways. Some of them are:

  • – Turmeric with other spices such as curry and syrups
  • – Turmeric is an ingredient in homemade dressing using oil, vinegar, and seasoning.
  • – Marinades with turmeric

Turmeric has also been included in some recipes, examples are:

  • – Turmeric milk
  • – Gold rush soup
  • – Manson jar lentil salad
  • – Others are the mango plus turmeric smoothie, and cumin-lime with turmeric vinaigrette (1).

Turmeric Supplements or Curcumin Supplements

There have been several questions in the clinic about if one should take turmeric supplements or curcumin supplements. But the original question should be “are turmeric supplements safe?”

Despite the limitless health benefits associated with the use of turmeric, studies, however, are still ongoing to ascertain if it is safe to use turmeric as supplements or if it is safe to take turmeric supplements.

Responses gotten from physicians suggest that turmeric supplements might not be an entirely good idea as too much curcumin can be harmful. In the presence of a family history of kidney stones, the use of turmeric supplements has been known to increase the risk of kidney stones in such individuals. This is because the supplements usually contain a very high concentration than may be necessary.

One fact to note about turmeric is that it has a low bioavailability, hence when taken, only a few percentages of it get absorbed in the body, and the rate of excretion by the body seems to be high.

Combining turmeric with other similar spices well absorbed by the body such as black pepper will help to increase its absorption rate in the body because black pepper contains piperine which has a higher bioavailability.

Therefore, it is a better option to enjoy turmeric benefits by mixing it with other available spices directly rather than consuming it in form of capsules or pills (2).

Side Effects Of Turmeric Extract

While turmeric has important health benefits, it should however be taken with caution and in moderate quantity to avoid some of the potential adverse effects.

Some of the recorded side effects of turmeric are:

  • – Abdominal discomfort

One of the benefits of turmeric is that it helps to aid digestion. However, when turmeric is consumed in very large quantities, it causes bowel irritation. Too much turmeric in the body leads to excessive production and secretion of gastric acid in the stomach which has negative side effects such as peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, GERD.

  • – Stimulates contraction

Excessive consumption of turmeric can stimulate preterm contraction in pregnant women or cause false labor. This is not limited to just turmeric, it has also been seen in other kinds of spices. However, studies are currently ongoing trying to debunk such a myth, but it is advisable to eat spices with caution during pregnancy.

In premenopausal symptoms, turmeric can also help to reduce the projected symptoms because of its direct effects on the uterus. Also, women trying to conceive and pregnant women should boycott turmeric containing spices, except taken with caution, because it causes thinning of the blood.

  • – Nausea and vomiting

Excessive intake of curcumin has reportedly caused nausea and vomiting in people, and at times there is associated headache (1).

Drug-Drug Interaction

One should be taken when feeding on turmeric especially using it to achieve a health goal. Too much turmeric in the body will cause it to interact poorly with certain medicines when taken together or simultaneously.

Examples of such drugs are:

  • Antidepressants
  • Antibiotics
  • Antihistamines
  • Chemotherapy agents
  • Others are antihypertensives and anticoagulants.

It is better to reach out to a physician or a pharmacist if on other medications, before starting on turmeric supplements to avoid drug-drug interactions and other avoidable reactions (6).



Glucosamine And Arthritis Pain Management

glucosamine and arthritis


Glucosamine and Arthritis

If you are looking for a supplement that will alleviate your joint pain caused by osteoarthritis, Glucosamine is your go-to.  Glucosamine and arthritis pain management is subject of deep interest for the scientific community. Glucosamine for osteoarthritis is a supplement taken daily to alleviate pain and inflammation. It comes in glucosamine gummies, glucosamine liquid, and other forms we will discuss. Other supplements such as glucosamine with turmeric and glucosamine with chondroitin are added to enhance the effect of this supplement. Subsequently in this article, we will discuss glucosamine benefits, especially in arthritis.

When glucosamine for joint pain is taken for a long time, it helps to slow down the progression or degeneration of osteoarthritis. Research shows that glucosamine for osteoarthritis slows down the narrowing of the space between joints, a marker that shows that the condition is getting worse, especially when taken for up to three years (1).

What is Glucosamine?

More importantly, what is glucosamine and arthritis pain management? Glucosamine is a naturally occurring supplement produced in the body. Glucosamine and chondroitin help to create other compounds that form the cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and synovial fluid around joints. It is crucial for the production of glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins, which are fundamental components of those joint components. It has been noticed that the structure and upkeep of these joint components affect the onset and progression of osteoarthritis.

What Is Osteoarthritis?

Before we discuss what osteoarthritis is, we need to talk about arthritis. Joint inflammation is referred to as arthritis (pain, swelling, and stiffness). It is typically used to describe any condition that affects connective tissues, including joints and the tissues around them. Arthritis is a degenerative disease that affects the joints of the knee, hip, hands, elbows, and shoulders. There are more than 100 different varieties of arthritis since it can affect a single joint or several joints at once.

According to surveys, 58.5 million persons have some form of arthritis and osteoarthritis pain in their joints. Also, it was mentioned that those 65 and older are affected. Arthritis can afflict anybody, including children and young adults, even though it is more common in women and the elderly. (2) Because this condition mostly affects knees, it is also widely referred to as knee osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis of the knee.


The most prevalent type of arthritis, osteoarthritis, is also known to require the most frequent hospitalizations. This degenerative condition, also known as arthrosis or wear-and-tear arthritis, impacts the entire joint. It starts with the cartilage inside a joint becoming tough and degrading (commonly the knees, hands, hips, and spine).

The body produces undesired small pieces of bone, known as osteophytes, to grow at the ends of the bone in the joint to make up for the wear and loss of cartilage. Synovial fluid builds up over time and may strain the joint capsule, making mobility challenging and painful. Glucosamine for osteoarthritis was created to combat this discomfort.

Symptoms of Osteoarthritis

Usually, the following symptoms are felt when you have osteoarthritis

  1. 1. Swelling and tenderness are caused by inflammation.
  2. 2. Pain: The intensity of pain in areas with osteoarthritis varies from person to person and increases over time if management is not initiated.
  3. 3. Osteoarthritis Nodes. Nodes of osteoarthritis are bony, hard lumps at the joints of your fingers. They are known as Heberden’s nodes when they form at the joint closest to your finger. Bouchard’s nodes are formed when they develop near the joints in your hand.
  4. 4. Stiffness: You May experience reduced movement, and crunching sounds as if your bones are rubbing together.

Glucosamine Benefits

  1. 1. Improves joint mobility and flexibility
  2. 2. Reduces pain
  3. 3. Reduces joint stiffness and pain
  4. 4. Provides relief even after treatment has been aborted.
  5. 5. Improves bone health.

You may want to consult your doctor before taking glucosamine.

Glucosamine Versus Collagen

Collagen is the most prevalent protein in both land and marine animals, including humans. It helps sustain tissues structurally and is crucial for cellular functions. Although it is present in muscle as well, it is concentrated most heavily in connective tissue (skin, joints, ligaments, and tendons). It supports tissues structurally and is crucial for several biological functions, including immune response, tissue repair, cellular communication, and migration. Collagen is responsible for wound healing, Joint health, and boosts immune and skin health while Glucosamine is responsible for the treatment of osteoarthritis, back pain, weight loss, etc.

The majority of glucosamine is produced by breaking down the chitin found in the shells of shellfish including lobster, shrimp, and crabs. Some companies have introduced glucosamine products manufactured from fermenting maize and the fungus Aspergillus niger to the market to satisfy the demands of vegetarians and others who have shellfish allergies.

Glucosamine is used by the body to create and repair cartilage. The flexible, durable, rubbery connective tissue known as cartilage shields the bones in the joints. It acts as cushioning and stops the bones from rubbing against one another.

As individuals age, their cartilage may start to break down and lose some of its flexibility. This often leads to inflammation, tissue destruction, and discomfort. Some research suggests glucosamine might halt this process and improve cartilage health. The body produces glucosamine naturally, but as people age, its amounts decrease. The lowering could eventually cause joint degeneration due to the wear and tear caused by the lack of lubrication. Glucosamine comes in various forms like glucosamine hydrochloride, glucosamine sulfate, and N-acetyl glucosamine. The synovial fluid and cartilage around joints act as cushions for easy sliding and gliding of the bones.

Available Forms of Glucosamine

Taking Glucosamine for joints as dietary supplement helps your joint grow and stay flexible. For osteoarthritis, the most common form of glucosamine to treat osteoarthritis and pain relief is glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine sulfate.

Glucosamine is often marketed and sold in combination with other supplements such as methylsulfonylmethane and chondroitin sulfate. It comes in form of glucosamine gummies, capsules, powder, liquid, and tablets. Glucosamine liquid is also available in high strength, making it an excellent choice for those who find it difficult to take conventional tablets or capsules but still want to maximize their Glucosamine intake. Glucosamine is available as an injectable and can be directly injected into the affected joint. Most of it has a high concentration and is bioavailable. Each 10ml dose contains 1000mg of high-quality Glucosamine HCl, which is the recommended daily amount.

This form of glucosamine was developed to make dispensing simple and easy, especially for geriatrics and individuals who struggle with drug compliance. Glucosamine gummies are also a very easy form of Glucosamine intake. It makes dosing easy for pediatrics and geriatrics alike. They are also a specific form of edible drug that ensures ease of use and superb absorption of active ingredients. It is just an excellent choice for both young children and adults, and it is widely available in most grocery and drug stores. Their appealing flavor and resemblance to gummy candies are their primary appeal, making them a more convenient alternative to the usual tablet dosage forms.

As a general rule, the taste of Glucosamine gummies is just barely tolerable. The reason for this is the risk of very children mistaking gummies for candy and taking a dose far over what is prescribed. You may want to talk to your doctor to use glucosamine as a dietary supplement for your osteoarthritis pain.

Glucosamine With Turmeric

If you’ve noticed your joints have been limiting you for some time, you should note that a plain Glucosamine supplement may not be enough to help. Glucosamine with Turmeric combines two potent components to help with your joint pain and cartilage rebuilding.

turmeric for joints

Glucosamine and Turmeric work on your joints over time, allowing you to continue your favorite activities. Turmeric has a long history of use in Chinese, Indian, and Middle Eastern cuisine as a spice, as well as in traditional medicine to aid the intestinal, digestive, liver, and joint health. Turmeric contains a high amount of anti-inflammatory properties. Because inflammation is one of the main causes of joint pain, reducing inflammation throughout the body is a good way to alleviate joint pain.

Research has shown that Glucosamine supplementation with turmeric enhances the regeneration of injured connective tissues and sustains the healthy repair of your joints in the future. It is difficult to get the body to repair damaged cartilage, and there are a few ways to purposefully help bolster the protective fluids (synovial fluid) that keep your joints safe. Consuming cartilage alone is not a realistic choice because your body cannot absorb it as it travels through the digestive system unutilized.

Glucosamine with Turmeric is a simple, safe, and dependable way to strengthen your connective tissues and protect your joint.

Glucosamine and Arthritis: Amounts and Dosage

The current optimal dosage allowed for oral glucosamine supplementation is 1,500mg per day to reduce pain. This can be taken as a dose or in divided doses over the course of the day.

Although some researchers do not agree with how much supplemental glucosamine the body absorbs and uses, most suggest that up to 90% is metabolized by the liver. Some trials indicate that larger doses than 1,500mg will be more effective at treating osteoarthritis. The safety profile of these higher doses has not been ascertained yet.

Side Effects of Glucosamine

Please notify your doctor about the following side effect as soon as possible.

  1. 1. Allergic reaction: A skin rash, hives, itching, or swelling of the face, neck, lips, or tongue are all indications of an allergic reaction.

When you notice the following side effects occurring after taking a glucosamine supplement, you do not need to report them. They will wear off as soon as your body gets used to the supplement. It contains;

  1. 1. Uneasy stomach
  2. 2. Constipation
  3. 3. Diarrhea
  4. 4. Nausea

Contraindications and Risk of Glucosamine

Glucosamine for arthritis is not recommended for everyone. Although it’s safe to use and causes only a few side effects, the following group of people should take caution while using this supplement;

  • – During pregnancy

Use of glucosamine during these times is not advised because it is not known how it may affect the baby.

– Cancer

Certain supplements make cancer treatments less effective as they may interfere with the absorption of some of the drugs when taken concomitantly. Consult a doctor first if you are receiving this kind of treatment and want to utilize glucosamine. Research also shows that glucosamine May increase cancer cell growth.

– Diabetic condition

According to Research, glucosamine supplements may have an impact on how much glucose the body produces. Due to this, patients with diabetes or glucose intolerance may find them inappropriate. Drug-drug interaction may also occur when glucosamine is taken concomitantly with certain anti-diabetic medications.

– Asthma

In 2008, researchers warned that glucosamine might cause several negative side effects, including breathlessness in those who have asthma.

– Allergies

Shellfish-derived glucosamine products have the potential to cause allergic reactions. If you’re allergic to shellfish, avoid taking this supplement.

– Glaucoma

Taking glucosamine and chondroitin increases the risk of developing glaucoma, including those who have a family history of glaucoma, are above 60 years of age, history of high blood pressure or diabetes(2).

– Blood and circulation problems

Glucosamine may affect blood pressure and blood clotting. Those who take it should do the following:

  1. 1. Avoid taking glucosamine with warfarin (Coumadin) or other blood thinners, and keep an eye on your blood pressure if you must.
  2. 2. NSAIDs. Concomitant use of NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, and Tylenol with glucosamine reduces the efficacy of the NSAIDs. This might be a good interaction because NSAIDs can cause ulceration of the stomach lining. Always talk to your physician before taking any supplement.

In conclusion, Arthritis has no cure. Nonetheless, it is crucial to keep joints functioning by minimizing pain and inflammation. Glucosamine benefits individuals with arthritis in the long run. In addition to taking glucosamine for joint issues, you will need to make lifestyle adjustments that will enhance your quality of life. Lifestyle changes include;

– Loss of weight. Weight-bearing joints like the knees and hips are put under increased strain when you are overweight. As much as you can, shed excess weight to lessen the burden on your joints.

– Exercise. Certain activities may aid in reducing stiffness and joint pain. Examples include brisk walking, swimming, and low-impact aerobic activity. Exercises that stretch the muscles and joints may also keep them flexible.

– Rest and exercise. Alternate periods of activity and rest to lessen the strain on your joints. This can minimize your symptoms and safeguard your joints.

– Support equipment. Walkers, crutches, and canes are helpful to reduce the stress on your joints and improve balance.