How Digestion System Works

how digestion system works


How Digestion System Works

To stay healthy, one very important factor that determines this is your digestive system. Without a properly functioning digestive system, we will not get the proper nourishment from the food and drinks we consume. Digestion helps breaks nutrients and supplements into smaller chunks to enable your body to absorb and use them for growth, energy, and cell repair. It is important to understand how digestion system works to adopt a healthy diet and lifestyle. In this article, we will discuss why digestive system is important, what digestion medical term is, and how digestion system works.

digestion medical term

The human digestive system is comprised of the gastrointestinal tract, also known as the digestive tract. This is a series of organs and structures that include hollow and solid organs. Solid organs are the pancreas, liver, and gall bladder. The gastrointestinal tract consists of hollow organs that join as a long tube from your mouth to your anus. The hollow organs are the mouth, esophagus, small intestine, stomach, large intestine, and anus.

The GI tract starts at the lips till it reaches the anus. It consists of the oral cavity that houses the teeth for chewing and the tongue for mixing and kneading food with saliva. From there it leads to the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and finally terminates at the rectum (6). Digestive juices that aid in the physical and chemical breakdown of ingested food and are produced by glands in the body include the salivary glands and gastric glands. Digestive juices also contribute to the eventual elimination of non-digestible wastes.

How Digestion System Works: Digestion vs Ingestion

The major distinction between ingestion and digestion is that one involves putting food into the body while the other involves breaking down the meal into smaller molecules that the body can absorb. Ingestion occurs first before digestion can take place. You can either ingest food, water, medicine, or fluids.

Digestive Process

The process by which our food Digests involves both mechanical and chemical processes, causing the food to be broken down into smaller pieces. Digestion begins with the enzymes present in saliva in the mouth. Your swallowing reflex aids the food you eat move from your mouth into the esophagus. Here, muscular contractions known as peristalsis causes the food to move down the tube into a muscular bag called the stomach (7). Both chemical and physical digestion occurs in the stomach. The constant churning movements of the tubular walls of the stomach mix the ingested food with a digestive fluid called gastric juice.

The cells that line the stomach produce highly acidic fluid, causing the enzymes present to start the chemical breakdown of the food. After some time, the food is churned into a creamy paste also known as chyme.

why digestive system is important

The end of the stomach called the pyloric sphincter controls the exit of chyme into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. Ducts from the pancreas and gall bladder secrete fluids rich in digestive enzymes and bile salts into the duodenum.

Subsequently, certain cells lining the small intestine produce succus entericus, a fluid made up mostly of mucus, water, and sodium bicarbonate. All these fluids help to lubricate the partly digested food as it moves through the gut, emulsify fats and oils, neutralize the acidic chyme, and enzymatically digest the carbohydrate, proteins, and fatty acids included. This whole process of breaking larger molecules into smaller molecules enables the absorption of the smaller molecules into the bloodstream where they can be utilized in various parts of the body.

How Is Food Absorbed Into The Body?

The small intestine is 5–6m long in which the majority of the chemical digestion occurs in the first meter. Absorption takes place once the smaller molecules are digested. There are millions of tiny finger-like structures called villi that project from the lining surrounding the small intestine. These tiny structures increase the surface area of the small intestine and contact with the products of digestion, allowing for rapid absorption into the bloodstream. As soon as absorption takes place, they are transported to the liver through the hepatic portal vein.

How is Food Ejected From The Body

By the time all of the digested food components, together with the vitamins and minerals that are beneficial to the body, have been separated from the watery contents by the small intestine, what is left over consists of indigestible dietary products like cellulose gotten from the ingestion of plant-based foods. As undigested products accumulate in the rectum, a response is stimulated in the rectum that ultimately leads to the evacuation of waste products through the anus.

How To Keep Your Digestive System Healthy

You do not have to wait till you feel unwell to take extra care of your digestive system. Here are some of the natural ways to keep your digestive health.

  1. 1. Consume a Diet Rich In Fiber.

A high-fiber diet full of fruits, whole grains, veggies, and legumes has been shown to promote the health of your digestive system. You are less likely to get constipation if you consume a high-fiber diet, which helps keep food moving through your digestive system. A high-fiber diet can also assist you in preventing or treating several digestive disorders, such as diverticulosis, hemorrhoids, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). You may use it to reach or keep a healthy weight.

  1. 2. Avoid Caffeinated Drinks

Caffeine-containing beverages, such as coffee, tea, colas, and some fizzy drinks increase stomach acid in some people, causing heartburn. Caffeinated drinks should also be avoided by people who have ulcers. Fizzy drinks in general tend to make people feel bloated, which can also cause heartburn. Choose non-carbonated, caffeine-free beverages to reduce your risk of experiencing digestive issues, such as water, herbal teas, and milk. If you can’t live without your coffee or tea, try to stick to only one or two cups per day.

  1. 3. Increase Intake of Prebiotics and Probiotics.

Probiotics are the same as yeast and beneficial bacteria that are already present in your digestive system. They work to counteract the negative effects of antibiotic use, poor diet, and stress on the body. Probiotics also can boost immunity, help absorbs nutrients, aid in the breakdown of lactose, and even aid in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Examples of probiotic-rich food include yogurt, kefir, miso soup, and cheese. You can also take a probiotic supplement to augment your diet. There is also concentrated probiotic juice called digestion shots. The digestion shot aims to aid digestion and absorption of food and boost gut health (4)

  1. 4. Drink Water Often

Water aids proper digestion by allowing the food you eat to flow easily through your digestive system. Dehydration is a common cause of constipation and you want to avoid that.

  1. 5. Avoid Excessive Alcohol Intake and Smoking

Alcohol can raise your stomach’s acidity, leading to stomach ulcers, heartburn, and acid reflux. Smoking increases your chances of gastrointestinal disorders including cancer and nearly doubles your likelihood of experiencing acid reflux. According to research, those with digestive problems who stop smoking have an improvement in their symptoms.

Signs of Digestive Problem

Digestive problems can happen to anyone. Here are some of the Common symptoms you may experience before choosing to visit a digestive care consultants, they include bloating, cramps, nausea and vomiting, swallowing problems, diarrhea, or constipation. Although these may not always seem like a sign of something serious, certain conditions like Diverticulitis, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn’s Disease, and ulcer can put you at a greater risk for these symptoms.

Other digestive diseases include:

  1. 1. Rectal problems like hemorrhoids, rectal prolapse, and proctitis.
  2. 2. Cholecystitis, gallstones
  3. 3. Stomach issues like gastritis, and ulcers caused by H.pylori(Helicobacter pylori)
  4. 4. Liver diseases such as cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatitis B and C.
  5. 5. GERD (Gastrointestinal esophageal reflux disease)
  6. 6. Esophagitis
  7. 7. Pancreatitis
  8. 8. Intestinal problems such as malabsorption, celiac disease, and Crohn’s disease.

Your digestive health consultants may do a number of tests to diagnose your digestive issues, including endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), colonoscopy, upper GI endoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasonography.

The digestive tract is the subject of numerous surgical procedures. They include endoscopic, open surgery, and laparoscopy treatments. The liver, pancreas, and small intestine can all be transplanted. Several digestion doctors can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of digestive issues. A physician specialist with further training in the diagnosis and management of digestive diseases is known as a gastroenterologist.

How to Enhance Digestive System with Digestion Herb

As commonly said, herbs and spices are the spice of life. They help enhance nutrient absorption and digestion while assisting the gut in breaking down meals efficiently. From the Mediterranean to the Middle East and elsewhere, there are a plethora of medicinal plants that people have used to enhance their digestive health. Each of the digestive herbs possesses a unique bioactive ingredient that can ease digestive discomfort and bring relief to your entire system.

Your immunity, toxin eradication, energy levels, mental clarity, mood, and other factors can all be boosted when your digestive system is operating at its peak. That’s why it’s crucial to consume a balanced diet, get lots of exercise, maintain an active lifestyle, and use herbal supplements daily.

Here are examples of digestion herbs commonly used to treat digestion problems (2).

  1. 1. Psyllium

Among the best herbs known to have digestive properties is psyllium without any doubt. Psyllium fiber is a fantastic way to quickly and easily increase daily your fiber consumption. Fiber is believed to assist regularity, healthy excretion, and gastrointestinal health.


  1. 2. Turmeric

Turmeric is best known for its favorable impact on gastrointestinal health and function as well as its capacity to support a balanced inflammatory response. The potential of this golden root to promote digestion, respiratory function, liver and pancreas function, joint health, and other functions has made a considerable impact on modern medicine.


  1. 3. Cloves

The digestive system benefits greatly from clove because it boosts gut immunity. Cloves can also be used to relieve the discomfort associated with diarrhea. This can be taken in form of the digestion of essential oils.


  1. 4. Cardamom

Eliche, also known as cardamom, is a preferred spice for improving digestive health. It has antispasmodic, antioxidant, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory properties which help relieve gas, cramps, and nausea.


  1. 5. Bael

Bael Leaf is the herb for you if you’re looking for a mild herbal laxative that works and is safe for daily and long-term use as needed. This herb aids in loosening the stool, acting as a moderate laxative to aid in healthy evacuation while preventing occasional constipation.

bael leaf

  1. 6. Licorice

Licorice is a common dietary supplement used today to assist digestion and calm the stomach. This is because licorice contains glycyrrhizin, a substance that may support a healthy inflammatory response and maintain a balanced acidity level in the stomach.


  1. 7. Oil of peppermint

One of the digestion essential oils named peppermint oil first became popular as a digestive herb in Ancient Greece. Many thousand years later, a growing body of scientific evidence supports the use of peppermint oil for symptomatic alleviation of irritable bowel syndrome, particularly in the form of delayed-release, enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules. Research has shown that peppermint oil has the effect of a mild smooth-muscle relaxant, calms and inhibit GI contraction, digestive spasms, relieve gas, and reduce discomfort.

peppermint oil

Acupuncture Points That Relieve Digestive Discomfort

Acupuncture points increase the movement of energy (qi) throughout the body and communicate with the nervous system to improve essential bodily processes like digestion and sleep and return us to balance.

There are digestion pressure points all over the body that can help the digestive system get back into balance. Many of these digestion pressure point influence the gut, and other abdominal organs to aid digestive health. In addition to acid reflux, constipation, indigestion, bloating, and pain and discomfort, acupressure along these channels can aid. Doing a digestion massage on those digestion pressure points causes relief of abdominal discomfort.

Another way to keep your digestive system up and running is through digestion exercises. The muscles in the digestive system receive more blood when you exercise, which aids in moving food through the digestive system. Digestion exercises also help reduce inflammation that may occur in the digestive system. Examples of such exercises include kegel exercises, body twisting, sit-ups, deep breathing, brisk walking, etc. (5)A slow walk around the block, for instance, can help with bloating and reduce feelings of fullness.

Digestive System Summary

Various organs of the digestive system work together to break down food into liquid and waste products. The digestive process begins as food passes through the mouth and continues as it travels through the digestive tract, including the stomach, small intestine, colon, jejunum, and ileum. Digestive juices from the pancreas aid in this process.

Food is broken down by chemical and physical means and nutrients are absorbed by the body. The colon absorbs more fluid and creates waste products of digestion, which are stored in the rectum before being eliminated from the body. The gallbladder plays a critical role in the digestive process by secreting bile, which helps to break down fats. In summary, the digestive system is made up of various processes that work together to efficiently break down food and extract nutrients using its acid and enzymes, while eliminating waste products from the body.



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Women’s Health Issues

women's health issues


Women’s Health Issues: Factors Affecting Women’s Health, And How To Improve Women’s Health

Women’s health issues are diverse, ranging from reproductive health to mental health. The physical needs of women vary throughout their lifecycle, from menstruation and pregnancy to menopause. Issues such as pelvic pain, urinary tract infections, cervical cancer, and breast cancer are prevalent among women. Women are also more prone to depression, anxiety, and other mental health disorders than men.

The lack of access to healthcare services and information impedes the timely diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these health needs. The societal and cultural stigma attached to women’s health also dissuades them from seeking medical help. It is essential to improve education and awareness, provide affordable and accessible healthcare services, and eliminate the stigma surrounding women’s health issues to ensure the well-being and empowerment of women.

women's health portal

Both biological makeup and gender differences have an impact on a person’s health in various ways that have ramifications for both men’s and women’s health and well-being. Due to the difficulties that have been noted to affect women in various societies, the health of women and the feminine gender as a whole is given special emphasis.

For instance, women are highly vulnerable to infectious infections, whether they are aware of it or not. HIV/AIDS, a sexually transmitted disease, is a prime example of this (1).

In terms of diagnosis, inspection, study, and treatment of diseases affecting women’s health and well-being, women’s health topics simply refers to the area of medicine that focuses on the total health of women. Many health issues affect women differently, such as pregnancy and childbirth. Female patients are also at higher risk of developing high blood pressure and other health conditions. Many of these health concerns have to do with healthy lifestyle choices, which are limited by inadequate education and nutrition factors identified above. Health care providers for women may keep these factors in consideration when prescribing medication to women or fulfill their gynecological needs.

One of the major goals of the world health organization (WHO) is to promote and improve the health of women all over the world. This includes both gynecology and obstetrics health as in menstruation, women’s cancer, mental health, pregnancy, and old age care for women.

The physicians for women’s health who specializes in taking care of the women’s reproductive system, fertility, and conception are referred to as obstetrics and gynecologists. They can be seen at different specialist hospitals and the women’s health center (2).

Women’s Health Issues: Factors Affecting Women’s Health

The following factors have been highlighted to impact the health of women both physically and mentally, hence, a thorough understanding of these factors will help women’s health dr to help their clients better. Some of the factors are:

Inadequate education and ignorance

Several factors impact the health of women, but of them all, education takes the lead. Although, every girl and woman is getting more access to education than before there are still lots of women out there who need to be enlightened on the importance of caring for their health.

Studies revealed that daily, an estimated 70 million girls are out of school, and close to 500 million females all over the world are fully illiterate with no knowledge of the importance and how to improve their health.

The ratio of illiteracy of men to women is 1:2. lack of proper education in these women put them at high risk of morbidity, predisposition to abuses, trafficking, and mortality.

A lot of women who die in the homes of quack birth attendants are uneducated women and women who lack knowledge of deciding or making a good decision to save their own lives (3).

Research carried out shows that close to 16% of women residing in rural areas are far from medical facilities and lack access to the women’s health centers, hence the majority of them cannot access quality health care.

The practice of poor hygiene which many of these women see as norms also predisposes them to diseases, such as enteric fever, which if not well taken care of can result in their death.

Unlike women who are knowledgeable and digitalized who have full access to health care and are digitalize, aside from being able to access the proper physicians for women’s health, they also have access to the women’s health portal online where they get consultations and education that will help promote their health (4).

Inadequate nutrition

Some women lack adequate knowledge of the proper food and diet they should be on to improve their health, especially during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Also, another contributory factor is the absence of decent women’s health and wellness center that is supposed to set the right standards and guidance to help women to improve their health.

Studies carried out also show that women eat the least quantity of food in families because of their quest to ensure that everyone else feeds well, hence, they suffer from malnutrition, anemia during pregnancy, and other life-threatening conditions.

Multiple, frequent, and unsafe pregnancies

Certain cultures believe that a woman must birth a male child to remain relevant in society, and to secure their place in the family. Hence, women who have female children are forced to have frequent pregnancies either against their will or not in the quest to birth a male child.

A nursing mother is supposed to heal adequately before another pregnancy exposure so their body is physiologically ready and fit for the next pregnancy phase and journey.

After multiple gestation such as twin pregnancy, there is over-stretching of the uterine muscles which are supposed to be given time to heal after delivery to prevent a rupture of the uterus in the next pregnancy.


Poverty has led to the death of so many women directly or indirectly. So many women’s mortality has been linked to a lack of funds to access the women’s health center when they are ill or need help, and by so doing, most women opt for traditional treatment of their ailments which has led to the death of so many women.

Violence against women

Gender-based violence against women is another silent factor that is capable of impaction the health of women. Studies reveal that in some parts of the world, gender-based violence against women is being reported every five minutes.

And sadly, most of the underdeveloped and developing countries do not have rehabilitation centered in women’s health and wellness centers where they can care for such women. Such women are left devastated, broken, and depressed, and some of them end up being victims of suicidal attempts, and some even commit suicide (4).

Common Women’s Health Issues

There are several health challenges and diseases that both genders can suffer from, however, there are certain diseases that are peculiar to just women such as breast cancer, and cervical cancer, and issues surrounding pregnancy and delivery.

Interestingly, studies have also revealed that women suffer from more heart attacks compared to the opposite gender. Urinary tract infection is commoner among women because of the short length of their urethral, and women are more vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections such as HIV/AIDS (5).

This section is aimed at highlighting and discussing some of the diseases. These are:

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women and one of the leading causes of death in them as well. Medical experts revealed that a lot of women have a phobia of the diagnosis of breast cancer hence most of them present late to the clinic out of such fear.

However, not all lumps or breast changes automatically mean breast cancer as other benign breast diseases could start with a lump such as a fibroadenoma, and are not life-threatening.

Breast cancer is a malignant breast disease that originates from the milk ducts and if not diagnosed and treated early enough is capable of spreading to other places in the body such as the lungs, the liver, and the kidneys this metastasis results in the death of the patient.

Therefore, it is important that women’s health dr talk to women during every clinic visit about the importance of self-breast examination and reporting to the hospital if they notice any funny changes in their breasts (5,6).

Uterine fibroids

The common benign, non-cancerous tumor that affects women are uterine fibroids. Uterine fibroids are stromal changes of the uterine muscles that mostly affect women of reproductive age groups.

The actual etiology of uterine fibroids is not known, however, there are risk factors that can predispose a woman to fibroids. Examples are:

  • – Black race
  • – Nulliparity
  • – Obesity
  • – Use of combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs)
  • – Family history of uterine fibroids
  • – High levels of estrogen and progesterone in the body.
  • – However, women with fibroids manifest signs and symptoms such as;
  • – Asymptomatic in 60% of women
  • – Abdominal swelling
  • – Abnormal uterine bleeding called menorrhagia
  • – Abdominal pain
  • – Urinary symptoms such as frequency, urgency, and dysuria
  • – Constipation

Reproductive issues such as infertility may be the first sign in asymptomatic women. Others are hydronephrosis on ultrasound, leg swelling, and varicose veins (7).

The physicians for women’s health who are specialists called the gynecologist at the women’s health center are responsible for the management of women with uterine fibroids, and the treatment can be medical or surgical. But, most often than not, the surgical approach is often employed especially in women already presenting with infertility.

Heart disease

Research has proven that 25% of women’s death recorded in the united states is a result of heart disease. And unfortunately, not all women are enlightened about this silent killer.

On average, 49% of female consumers in the united states suffers from elevated blood pressure, and hypertension has been recorded as the leading cause of heart diseases in both gender, alongside other risk factors like being black, having high cholesterol level, and smoking.

It is therefore important that women’s health dr educate their clients about how to avoid these risk factors especially women with a family history of heart diseases.

Cervical cancer

A lot of women cannot differentiate cervical cancer from ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancers affect the ovaries and originate from the fallopian tubes while cervical cancers have to do with cancer of the cervix in the lowermost part of the uterus.

While both manifest similar symptoms, cervical cancer causes contact bleeding during sexual intercourse, and patient with late-stage ovarian cancer has a characteristic foul-smelling odor from their vagina.

With the use of a pap smear, and a cancer screening test, patient at risk of cervical cancer can be picked early and treatment initiated early for the ones who are already diagnosed but still asymptomatic (5).

Sexual abuse/violence

In the united states, sexual violence is a very important topic of discussion and a crime. Sexual violence occurs when a woman doesn’t consent to sexual activity, which occurs under force or coercion. This has led to anxiety, depression, and other mental health issues in women.

Sexual violence however is not limited to just gender, both men and women can be violated sexually, but, women are mostly at the receiving end of sexual abuse or violence. And the abuser is not always a stranger, the abuser can be a family, coworker, or neighbor.

Women’s Health Issues: How To Improve Women’s Health

It is therefore encouraged that every women’s health and wellness center should provide a unit to help women in this category both medically and legally. A page can also be dedicated to sexual abuse on the women’s health portal to help women report cases of sexual abuse for women who are shy of coming out to speak physically or women afraid of being stigmatized due to ignorance (7).

Steps To Improve The Health Of Women

The following are steps women can take to improve to promote healthy living and improve their health:

  • – Regular exercise and physical activities
  • – Adequate sleep
  • – Routine health screening and check-ups
  • – Avoid smoking
  • – Healthy diet and nutrition
  • – Effective stress management (12).

Screening Tests For Women’s Health

Due to the more complex nature of women’s anatomy, there are several and more screening tests available to help in the early detection of certain diseases in women. Health screening aid in the early diagnosis of diseases in women which will stimulate early treatment and cure where possible.

The following are some of the health screening tests available for women:

  • – Blood pressure

Regular checking of blood pressure will help to detect women with elevated blood pressure, and hypertension. Hypertension is a risk factor for several heart diseases, and early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension will help to prevent such complications.

  • – Pap smear

A pap smear is a screening test that requires sample collection from the cervix to check for epithelial cell changes in the cervix which can be the first signal of cervical cancer in women. And it is encouraged that women with a family history of cervical cancer and other high-risk women should get a pap smear done regularly when due.

  • – Mammography

A mammogram is used to check the breast of women for any epithelial changes that may be worrisome to rule out breast cancer in such women. Mammogram is usually used for women above 35 years ago because of the breast density.

physicians for women's health

However, the American cancer society recommends that women from 45 years of age should start annual screening with mammograms because of the high risk of breast cancer in the age group. Women with a family history of breast cancer will however be scheduled appropriately by their women’s health doctor.

  • – Dual-energy x-ray absorption or absorptiometry

This is also referred to as DEXA, it is used to check bone density in women because of the high risk of osteoporosis, especially in women from 65 years of age.

Osteoporosis can lead to pathological fracture in women if not diagnosed early and studies have revealed that this occurs as a result of low levels of estrogen in women, especially women with a family history (10).

Other screening tests for women are:

  • – Cholesterol screening
  • – Colorectal cancer screening
  • – A rapid diagnostic test to screen for HIV/AIDS
  • – Fasting or random blood glucose to rule out diabetes mellitus
  • – Eye test for cataracts or glaucoma (11).

The Women’s Health Center

The women’s health and wellness center is a specialized clinic/hospital focused on caring for the health of women. It is usually a specialized obstetrics and specialized clinic, with well-trained physicians for women’s health. The physicians for women’s health are dedicated to supporting women and providing the best care as needed by the individual patient.

the women's health center

The services offered by the women’s health center include:

  • – Obstetrics
  • – Gynecology
  • – Aesthetics
  • – Minor and major surgical procedures (8).

To locate the best women’s health center, google search online for the closest to your location, sign in on their women’s health portal to get registered, and schedule yourself for a physical or an online consultation.

The online women’s health portal also provides every woman with the required resources to promote healthy living and prevent some of the diseases that affect women. Some of the resources available on the women’s health portal include a nutritional guide, a fitness guide, activities, and guide for a positive lifestyle modification (9).



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Resistance Bands To Build Muscle

resistance bands to build muscle


Skeletal Muscles, Protein Powder, Calisthenics and Resistance Bands To Build Muscle

When it comes to building muscles the right way, there are never too many questions to ask. Questions range from how many calories build muscle, how to build muscle in the legs, how to use resistance bands to build muscle, build muscle recipes, protein powders, and so on. In this article, we will discuss all there is to know about muscle building.

What Are Skeletal Muscles?

Anatomically, skeletal muscles comprise multiple parallel cylindrical fibers that produce force when they contract. The process by which the muscle contracts is what allows for external movement in humans to occur.

Skeletal muscles do not only function to move but also functions to prevent movement. This includes resisting gravity to maintain posture. To enable the body to maintain any balanced position or keep the body upright, small and constant adjustments of the skeletal muscles are needed for this action. Muscles also prevent skeletal structure deformation or damage, prevent joints and bones from excessive movement, and maintain skeletal stability.

The body is constantly recycling and renewing protein building blocks or amino acids in your muscles. This means that you lose muscle size when your body uses more protein than it adds. If the net protein synthesis remains the same, then there will be no measurable change in muscle size. Subsequently, if your body stores more protein than it removes, your muscles will increase.

The key to building and remodeling your muscle is to increase protein deposition while reducing the rate of protein breakdown. The process of increasing muscle mass is called muscle hypertrophy and it is the primary goal when you engage in resistance training. The process of muscle building is driven by many factors, including the availability of amino acids and other nutrients and also hormones like testosterone and growth hormones.

To be able to gain new muscle tissue, the primary tools for enhancing your body’s rate of protein synthesis are getting sufficient amounts of build muscle protein powder, nutrients rich in calories and most importantly performing resistance training.

How Do Muscles Grow?

When you exercise, you put extra tension on your muscles than they are used to. This action causes microscopic tears in your muscle fibers, causing damage to your muscles. Following a workout, your body restores the damaged muscle fibers through a cellular process that joins the muscle fibers back together while also forming new muscle protein strands called myofibrils.

Eventually, your muscles adapt to the stress and so you will need to make sure they are getting enough stress progressively. If you can accomplish this, you will eventually increase the size of your muscles. This is referred to as muscle hypertrophy.

However, if your recovery does not include a high-protein diet, proper sleep, and rest days, the effectiveness of your muscle growth will be reduced even with enough tension or strength. You must also increase the stress and tension you place on your muscles per time, so your muscle growth will not plateau.

When the right amount of resistance training is carried out, it allows your body’s hormonal system respond toward building muscle. It also requires sufficient protein and energy to ensure the process results in muscle gains as opposed to muscle losses (1).

Resistance training with moderate to heavy loads combined with a relatively high protein intake is the main training strategy for building muscle mass. Consuming the best build muscle breakfast containing carbohydrates, proteins, and fat is also a good way of bulking your muscles. Examples include pancakes, chicken omelets, greek yogurt, and avocado toast.

Most people think that having bigger muscles produce the most force. You should know that when comparing build muscle vs strength training, strength-trained muscles usually will have overall better muscle fiber quality.

Despite having massive muscles and a larger overall frame, you might have a slight strength advantage and higher performance standards. The best training methods will vary based on whether you want to gain strength or more muscle.

As was already said, hypertrophy involves gaining muscle size through a focused exercise that attempts to gradually increase your weightlifting volume (sets x reps). The purpose of strength training is to build muscle power and the capacity to lift heavier weights. Strength is the quality of being strong. The heavy lifting required to achieve this is above 85%.

What Is The Difference Between Strength Training and Muscle Growth?

Your routines should focus on multi-joint compound lifts, such as bench presses, squats, deadlifts, and pull-ups since one of the objectives of strength training is to generate maximum force.

build muscle in legs

To achieve a large amount of muscle growth with hypertrophy training, you need to combine isolation and compound workouts. Although it’s not the best way to develop functional strength, trying to train isolated muscle groups, such as with hammer curls and leg extensions, can be useful for promoting the growth of certain muscle groups.

Throughout these training phases, you should change your exercise progression as well. While you use lesser weights during hypertrophy training, increasing sets and reps, loading, or adding complexity to an exercise are all excellent strategies to keep developing muscle. squats, deadlifts, bench presses, and pull-ups, as the objective of strength training, is maximum force generation.

Is It Possible To Build Muscle With Protein Powder?

Protein powders are an excellent way to augment your lifestyle, especially when building muscle with protein powder. By adding amino acids, whey protein, or nutrients, you can stimulate muscle growth and recovery.

Consuming a good protein powder can also help you in preventing muscle mass loss. These supplements also improve stamina, strength, and endurance, so you can perform high-intensity workouts. We will discuss how many calories build muscle but evidence suggests taking 20 to 40 grams of protein at a time for people who want to boost the muscular building that generally happens with exercise (roughly the amount found in a can of tuna).

Excessive amounts merely add calories and may even inhibit the ability to grow muscle. Hence, be careful of consuming multiple scoops of build muscle protein powder at once as it is probably not beneficial. Although plant-based powders frequently include less protein, they shouldn’t be discounted as a possibility. Like whey, a protein derived from milk that is praised for its high quality and speedy absorption, rice and pea protein, for instance, have been demonstrated to boost muscle building similarly.

Resistance Bands To Build Muscle

Is it possible to build muscle with resistance bands? Many people assume that muscles can only be built in the gym by lifting barbells, dumbells, and other conventional heavy-weight instruments. However, you can build muscle and strength using resistance bands as well.

If you’re looking for a convenient, low-cost, portable, and easy-to-use instrument at home to gain muscle strength, the resistance bands to build muscle should be your go-to. It is also a convenient at-home strength training workout equipment for those who can’t afford a gym membership or prefer the privacy and efficiency of working out at home.

build muscle resistance bands

Resistance on a muscle can be carried out in several ways and resistance bands may provide a logical way to do so. So, what differentiates a weighted instrument from a resistance band is the resistance curve. Lifting a heavy weight means the same amount of weight is maintained throughout a range of motion.

However, with a resistance band, it gets harder as you stretch it the more. For instance, the stress of lifting a heavy weight during a bicep curl use will be largely in the center of the exercise. Whereas the tension in the band will remain in the middle, when it stretches out further into the top range, it will become even more challenging. Gains in strength and muscle can result from this. Anything that nearly exhausts a muscle will promote growth naturally.

Swimming is also a resistance exercise like weightlifting and using resistance bands to build muscle. Swimming is a lot faster and more efficient way to build muscle swimming than standard aerobic exercises like jogging and biking. It increases muscle ability and endurance to continually push and pull against the water, which has a higher resistance level than air. You’ll quickly build muscle swimming and get a fully toned swimmer’s figure which helps you build muscle in arms and also build muscle in legs.

5 Resistance Band Exercises To Build Muscles

Here are five various resistance band exercises that can be carried out when trying to build muscles and increase muscle strength.

  1. 1. Squats

Grab both ends of the resistance band while standing on it. Extend your knees up to a standing posture while clutching the band and standing in a squat. Repeat by descending once more.

  1. 2. Chest press

Holding both ends of the resistance band with your hands, wrap it behind your back. Push the band out in front of you while straightening your elbows while keeping your arms at your sides and holding for one second.

  1. 3. Elastic band rows

Attach the band securely to a door. Hold the band with both hands and rest backward as you bend your elbows. Ensure to keep elbows at the side of your body.

  1. 4. Biceps curl

Step on the resistance band with your feet and with your arms by your side, hold the bands and draw up your hand by bending your elbow. Hold for a second and relax your elbow while still holding the band. Keep your palm face up all the time.

  1. 5. Clamshells

Lie on one side, and place one leg on the other with both knees slightly bent. Keeping your feet together, loop a resistance band around your thighs and lift your knee. Switch sides after each set.

How Many Calories Build Muscle?

It is important to note that while calculating how many calories build muscle, not all protein values are the same when it comes to muscle building. Always keep in mind that the higher the biological value of the protein consumed, the more it is used for muscle building.

Stick to high-quality proteins like milk, eggs, casein, whey, fish, or lean meats to maximize muscle growth. Incorporating lesser quality from plant-based sources, such as nuts and beans, can, however, be a valuable protein source for muscle building.

To gain muscle mass, you must have an excess of calories and protein stored up in your system, which is gotten by eating small meals throughout the day. To increase muscle mass, most adults need about 44 kcal / kg of body weight. The daily calorie requirement for a male weighing 180 pounds (82kg) is 3600 calories. To gain extra muscle, you’ll need to eat about 100-300 kcals.

How To Gain Weight With Calisthenics

Calisthenics is doing exercises that rely on your body weight. These exercises are usually performed using varying levels of intensity and rhythm. This allows for the development of endurance, strength, coordination, and flexibility. When you build muscle calisthenics, you can do them anywhere without any equipment. Here are some of the exercises you can carry out to build muscle calisthenics;

  1. 1. Push-up

This focuses on helping you build muscle in arms and shoulders. You can start with doing a tolerable number and keep increasing daily as you build capacity.

  1. 2. Handstand push-ups

This helps you build muscles in your core, shoulders, and arms. You can do this by standing on your palms with your body raised. Bend your elbows and lower your body towards the floor. Raise yourself back up to the original position and repeat. If you can not do a handstand yet, use a wall as support.

  1. 3. Air Squats

This helps build your hamstring, glutes, and quads. It can be done by bending your knees with your feet shoulder-width apart. Lower your body downwards and maintain a straight back. Squat till your thighs are parallel to the floor. Repeat several times.

  1. 4. Lunges

To perform a lunge, start by standing on your feet hip-width apart. Move a foot forward and lower your whole body towards the floor. Maintain a back straight and lunge down so that your thigh is parallel to the floor. Push yourself back up to the starting position and repeat the process. Lunges are somewhat similar to yoga.

In summary, building muscles can be done in various ways as there is no size fit all program. Learn about your metabolism and do what is right for you. Exercise and diet are very important. Calculating your protein needs, and tracking your food in a diary or app helps in planning well-balanced meals.



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7 Collagen Peptides Powder Benefits

collagen peptides powder benefits


7 Collagen Peptides Powder Benefits

When it comes to starting a collagen peptides routine, there are never too many questions to ask. Questions range from collagen peptides powder benefits, collagen peptides for men, collagen peptides for Arthritis treatment, collagen peptides for joints pain, collagen peptides side effects, and so on. In this article, we’ll discuss all there is to know about collagen peptides.

What Are Collagen Peptides?

The most abundant protein in the human body is collagen. It is the main content in connective tissues, which include ligaments, skin, tendons, and muscles (6). Studies have shown that collagen supplements may help with skin, joints, bones, and hair. The sections below described in details various benefits of collagen powder for your health.

Health Benefits Of Collagen Peptides

Collagen serves numerous functions and plays vital roles in providing structure to your skin and strengthening your bones and joints. Collagen peptides are fragments of protein derived from animal collagen. They are proteins found in the skin, cartilage, and bone (1).

Collagen peptides are manufactured usually by dissolving collagen proteins into bits and pieces. Collagen peptides accumulates in the skin and cartilage when taken orally. Collagen peptides are used for the treatment of osteoarthritis and for slowing down the aging process. Other collagen peptides benefits are the treatment of brittle nails, osteoporosis, muscle strength, and many other purposes.

As you age, the level of collagen in your body begins to reduce. By the age of 40, there’s a possibility of losing 1% of body collagen every year and when menopause occurs, it speeds up the loss, causing stiff joints, wrinkles, decreased muscle mass, and worn-out cartilage. This is why taking collagen supplements will help you replenish your lost collagen.

You might be wondering, where does Collagen peptides come from? Naturally, collagen is produced in our body by merging the amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins found in the food we consume. To produce collagen, your body needs:

  • – Glycine: found in chicken skin, pork skin, gelatin, and other protein-rich foods
  • – Zinc: found in shellfish, lentils, beans, beef, lamb, pork, cheese, and various types of nuts and seeds.
  • – Proline: found in cabbage, mushrooms, egg whites, dairy, and asparagus.
  • – Vitamin C: found in bell peppers and citrus fruits.
  • – Copper: found in cashews, sesame seeds, organ meats, cocoa powder, and lentils

What Are The Types Of Collagen Powder?

The body contains various types of collagen. Research has shown that there are 29 varieties, but here are the 5 main types

  1. 1. Type I- Gives strength to your bones, skin, ligaments, and tendons
  2. 2. Type II – This type of collagen makes up the cartilage that helps give support to the joints.
  3. 3. Type III – These types of collagen are found in blood vessels, internal organs (liver, bone marrow), and muscles.
  4. 4. Type IV – found in some layers of your skin
  5. 5. Type V, present in corneas as well as layers of skin and hair

Collagen Supplement

Most collagen supplements available mostly contain types I, II, and III, accounting for the majority of the collagen found in the body. They contain a digestible type of collagen called hydrolyzed collagen or collagen peptides.

So you might be wondering about collagen peptides versus hydrolyzed collagen. What is the difference between both of them? Well, there are no differences between them. Hydrolyzed collagen is another name for collagen peptides. They are interchangeable terms for the same thing. It’s merely a language issue. The term “collagen peptides” refers to the final product, which are peptides produced from collagen, whereas the term “hydrolyzed collagen” refers to the process used to make collagen peptides.

Collagen that has undergone the hydrolysis process and been reduced to nanoparticle size is known as collagen hydrolyzed or collagen hydrolysate. The outcome is collagen peptides that have been hydrolyzed and are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. The most popular and efficient type of collagen supplement is this one.

As peptides enter the bloodstream, they cause cells all over the body to produce more collagen, which can be beneficial for many of your Collagen that has undergone the hydrolysis process and been reduced to nanoparticle size is known as collagen hydrolyzed or collagen hydrolysate. The outcome is collagen peptides that have been hydrolyzed and are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. The most popular and efficient type of collagen supplement is this one.

7 Collagen Peptides Powder Benefits

  1. 1. Maintains skin elasticity

It is no longer news that as we age, our skin gets wrinkled and duller. But collagen peptides slow down this aging process and help give the skin a firm look. It helps plump it up to make you look younger. Take collagen peptides to improve skin health.

  1. 2. Joint Pain

One of the most prevalent types of chronic pain is joint pain. The two most common causes of joint pain are osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), neither of which has a preventive or curative treatment. It has been suggested that taking oral collagen may be able to treat arthritis.

Amazing Chiropractic Facts

Collagen peptides for joints have been found in numerous scientific studies to aid enhance joint health by preventing cartilage deterioration and assisting in the reduction of inflammation around the joint. Those who have joint issues can benefit from this since it can increase mobility and lessen pain.

  1. 3. Collagen Peptides For Weight Loss

One of the most important advantages of using collagen peptides for weight loss is that it is naturally high in protein and low in calories. When it comes to losing weight, lean proteins are your best bet. A meal or snack high in lean protein can help you feel fuller for longer, providing your body with energy without you having to pack the pounds.

Consuming collagen, specifically gelatin, has also been shown in studies to increase ghrelin levels in the body. Ghrelin is the hormone that makes you feel full, so having more of it will help you resist the urge to eat more and keep your calorie count low.

Another method in which collagen for weight loss occurs is that it can help relieve joint pain and inflammation. This may not appear to be an obvious benefit when it comes to weight loss, but it can certainly go a long way.

Joint pain can seriously impede a workout and even daily activities, reducing your ability to burn calories. Collagen may help boost your exercise routine and make it easier to lose weight by reducing joint pain and improving mobility.

  1. 4. Bone Health

Peptides from collagen can help bone health. Collagen and calcium ions make up the majority of the material in your bones. Throughout one’s life, bones are constantly regenerating and repaired in a process known as bone remodeling.

Collagen peptides can be used as a health supplement to promote bone remodeling and support excellent bone health. Researchers discovered in a recent study that collagen peptide supplementation can affect bone cells’ metabolism at various levels, encouraging remodeling and aiding the body in maintaining the strength of its bones. In another clinical trial research, they discovered that collagen type II helped improve joint mobility and comfort and also support their physical function. (3)

  1. 5. Gut Health

Although there is little data on collagen supplements, studies have shown that people with digestive problems have lower levels of some forms of collagen. As a primary fuel source for the cells in the intestine, L-glutamate, one of the major amino acids in collagen, maintains the health of the digestive system.

Proline and glycine, two other amino acids present in collagen, are also used as fuel by the cells that line our stomach. Collagen supplementation facilitates digestion, supports gut lining repair, and can treat IBS and leaky gut syndrome (4).

  1. 6. Collagen Peptides For Hair Growth

Collagen makes up more than half of your dermis, the layer of your skin in which the root of each hair grows (5). It contributes to the elasticity and strength of your dermis as old age loses the body’s ability to produce collagen. This is why hair gets thinner over time.

Collagen helps the hair bulb with the optimum nutrition throughout the growth stage of your hair, thereby generating the ideal conditions for the formation of strong hairs. Another way collagen peptides for hair occurs via hydration. The main benefits of collagen peptide-infused conditioners, shampoos, and serums are hydration and the advantages of amino acids for safeguarding and protecting hair and scalp.

  1. 7. Collagen Peptides For Arthritis

Collagen peptides supplements may help with the pain and inflammation associated with Osteoarthritis. Arthritis occurs as a result of cartilage damage at the joints. This condition worsens over time and can be excruciatingly painful, affecting your mobility and overall quality of life. The cartilage acts as a smooth layering between the ball (the end of the femoral head) and the socket (the acetabulum of the pelvis), allowing the ball to slide and rotate with ease when the leg moves. The Labrum is the cartilage that lines the outer rim of the socket and provides stability.

arthritis nodes

When the cartilage in your joint is damaged, it becomes rough and abrasive (2). The space between the joints narrows due to cartilage thinning. In severe cases, the bones start rubbing against each other, causing pain and stiffness. Collagen peptides for Arthritis help rebuild and protect the cartilage to prevent friction.

Side Effects of Collagen Peptides

The Side effects of collagen vary depending on which collagen supplement you take. Whichever one you take, the side effects are generally mild. The possible side effects you experience include;

  1. 1. Diarrhea
  2. 2. Upset stomach
  3. 3. Rashes, or skin reactions
  4. 4. Heartburn
  5. 5. Headache
  6. 6. Nausea
  7. 7. Constipation

People who are allergic to fish, chicken, shellfish, or egg should avoid ingesting collagen supplements since they may contain these ingredients. Pregnant and breastfeeding mothers should avoid taking this supplement as the safety has not been ascertained.

How Much Collagen Peptides Per Day?

Depending on the collagen supplement you are taking and the reason for taking it, the doses vary for each day.

Typically, 2.5-10 grams of collagen peptides in divided doses can be taken by mouth daily for 8–12 weeks to improve the health of your skin and hair. 10 grams of collagen peptides can be given every day in 1-2 divided dosages for roughly 5 months to treat arthritis.

The various varieties of collagen that are readily available also have different doses and this is how many collagen peptides per day are used.

  1. 1. Hydrolyzed collagen derived from shellfish, cattle, pigs, poultry, and other sources. It is possible to purchase hydrolyzed collagen in powder or capsule form, and research suggests that consuming 2.5–15 grams of it daily may be beneficial for the health of your skin, bones, and hair.
  2. 2. Undenatured Collagen: Gotten from chicken cartilage. According to some research, consuming 10mg to 40 mg of undenatured collagen every day can considerably reduce your joint discomfort and inflammation.
  3. 3. Gelatin- gotten from animal sources is used to augment the collagen proteins in smoothies, sauces, soups, and other dishes.

Note that the directions for use on each package of the supplements will often advise taking 1-2 scoops of a powdered supplement, or 1-2 pieces of a pill or gummy supplement, every day. Be sure to read the nutrition facts label for precise dosing instructions on the different packs because the quantity of collagen in a supplement will depend on how it is made.

Collagen peptides powder benefits are numerous. Powders are the most effective as they deliver the most collagen into the body and are also a convenient way to incorporate a significant amount of collagen into your diet. You could blend it into a sweet smoothie with colorful fruits or mixed with your morning coffee or latte. If you prefer other delivery methods like capsules, drinks, tonics, or gummies that’s fine. Just keep in mind that these products are unlikely to contain as much collagen.

The benefits of collagen peptides go beyond the ones listed above. Collagen supplement may also improve skin health. You may want to take collagen to improve skin health.


In conclusion, People from all walks of life have used natural products from a variety of sources to enhance their beauty, maintain a youthful appearance, alleviate pain, and, in general, maintain their health since time immemorial (1). This is due to the increased interest in the health benefits of antioxidants derived from natural products as a result of their applicability and safety in these supplement production.

When you start using collagen supplements for your body, you will notice that your physical appearance begins to improve. Your bone gets stronger, arthritis pain reduces, and your hair and nails may begin to grow longer and stronger.


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9 Achievable Mental Health Goals

mental health goals


Mental Health Goals, Mental Health Disorders, And How To Set Mental Health Goals For The New Year

Mental health entails all that has to do with our psychological, and social well-being and is not limited to just our emotional health. Mental health consequently affects one’s reasoning pattern, feelings as well as actions, the way stresses are being handled, and the choice of things.

Interesting to say good mental health is not limited to just an adult or the elderly. Mental health started in childhood and spans through to old age (1).

In this article, we will discuss what should be the specific mental health goals to set for any age group. Also, how mental health is important, can mental health affect physical health, and how mental health yoga can help mental and emotional wellbeing.

There is stigma surrounding mental health in our society. Despite one’s mental health status, one should set long-term mental health goals for optimum well-being. Also, make sure your goals for mental health are smart goals and realistic goals to help you reach your maximum productivity and happiness.

Make short-term goals, such as stress management and also set a long-term goal, such as manage negative thought to live a happier life. A person’s mental health is just as important as their physical health. People with good mental health goals also help improve their physical health for a balanced body and mind connection. Taking care of your body, get enough sleep, and a strong support system are healthy ways to help you achieve the goal of a long and healthy life.

What Is Mental Health And Wellness, How To Reach Your Mental Health Goals?

The world health organization, WHO defines mental health as a specific state of well-being mental, that aids an individual in coping and adjusting to the stresses life throws at him or her, being open to learning new things, working and taking part in communal activities, and contributing to the growth of their society.

Mental health is a very vital component of one’s well-being that affects our personal and collective decision-making process, affects the kinds of relationships we build with people, and the way we view the world at large.

It is safe to say good mental health passes for a civic human right of every individual, and it is very important in every personal, and economic development.

Mental health goals are beyond just the absence of mental illnesses, it is a continuum with different testimonial experiences in people and different challenges and outcomes for different individuals (2).

To further buttress how important mental health is, the world health organization has annually set aside the 10th of October as world mental health day every year (11).

However, the date when mental health awareness week will take place has been concluded to be Monday 15th to Sunday 21st of May, 2023. During this period, there will be public enlightenment on the importance of mental health and how to improve one’s mental health (12).

Mental Health Vs Emotional Health

A lot of people mistake emotional health to mean the same thing as mental health, however, these are two different things although they may coexist together with very similar features, they are also unique programs on their own with specific definitions.

Recognizing the differences between emotional and mental health will not only help in diagnosis, but it will also help in the management of each patient or client and help a general practitioner when referring patients to the right clinic or rehabilitation centers.

What then is emotional health definition? Emotional health can be defined as the ability of an individual to cope, adjust and manage different emotions. Emotional health has also been defined as the ability of an individual to relate well with people and be able to maintain a good and positive interpersonal relationships with people.

Mental health on the other hand has to do with the ability to cope with all kinds of stressors and be able to manage one’s emotions effectively. Mental health also influences one’s decision-making process (3).

What Are The Similarities Between The Emotional Health Definition And Mental Health?

Emotional health and mental are unique and different entities, but just as in medicine, one discipline can always exist or coexist with another.

Emotional health and mental health are also very similar and intertwined. If mental health is not stable and fine, emotional health will always be in shambles and wild. To enjoy good emotional intelligence and management, one must be in the right state of health mentally.

In the rehabilitation of patients with mental disorders, for example, the activities always take into consideration and focus on both emotional health and mental health (3).

Mental Health Vs Well Being

To perfectly explain what mental health or mental well-being is, the differences between the two entities will be explained with mental illness.

Like there is physical health, our mental health also exists and the relationship between both helps us to stay positive, and happy, helps to stay healthy, and reduces the risk of infections or diseases.

Mental well-being is similar to mental health and several schools of thought have argued that there are no existing differences between the two entities. While mental health exists generally in everyone regardless of whether good or bad, mental well-being takes a different turn in everyone and is usually dictated by the mental and physical health of individuals.


An individual having poor night sleep, loss of appetite, anorexia, low mood, and other clinical symptoms, is at that point described to have low or poor mental well-being, and not necessarily that they are suffering from a mental illness or have a mental disorder already (4).

When so many people address well-being, most are referring to general well-being and the state of the mind on a daily, as well as the things and activities that take place daily, such as office stress, staff burnout, and others. These are the things commonly referred to in mental well-being and not mental disorders.

However, certain factors can affect the mental health and well-being of individuals, some of such factors are:

  • – Relationships: A healthy relationship will have a positive effect on the mental health and mental well-being of an individual
  • – Careers: A good workplace, minimal stress at work, and good interpersonal relationships with coworkers will aid good mental well-being and health
  • – Nutrition: Eating healthy and eating good foods is another good stimulant for the mind, it helps to stay healthy.
  • – Exercises: mental health yoga and other exercises are highly recommended for individuals that want good mental health and well-being.
  • – Others are good sleep, building good self-esteem, and good work-life balance (5).

Can Mental Health Affect Physical Health?

There is a strong connection between our mental health and physical health. There are several relationships between the onset of chronic medical conditions, their manifestations, and the mental health of a person, and how this unavoidably affects the quality of life, pressure on the health system, and its overall impact on society or community.

There is no better place to explain how possible can mental health affect physical health other than in patients dealing with chronic medical conditions

Chronic medical conditions can present as a result of bad mental health. Studies have explained mental health patients whose conditions do not improve or with advanced mental disorders are at risk of chronic physical conditions. Interestingly, patients with chronic medical or physical conditions are high-risk patients with poor mental health (6).

What Are The Effects Of Poor Mental Health On Physical Health:

The following are some of the highlighted effects of mental health on overall physical health:

  • – Chronic diseases

Several chronic diseases have been linked to the onset of depression and anxiety in patients. For example, a lot of patients with diabetes mellitus, cancer, and hypertension, are increasingly being referred to a psychiatrist or mental health expert because of the manifestations of mental disorders in them.

Another study explained that a lot of patients with schizophrenia, both on treatment or not end up developing chronic physical conditions such as heart diseases, with higher mortality rates.

  • – Poor sleep

A lot of patients with mental disorders have sleep problems such as insomnia. Individuals with depression, for example, may find it difficult to fall asleep or stay asleep at night which in the end has a worse prognosis on the overall health of the client. Conditions like anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders will affect the sleep patterns of the patients, which may result in insomnia.

  • – Poor health seeking behavior

Individuals with mental disorders are at risk of inadequate access to quality healthcare services. This is because there is a mental disorder that in the first place may be affecting their reasoning and inability to decide when to access the health facility.

It is also difficult for people who suffer from mental disorders to take good care of their physical health. This is because of the self-neglect that comes with some of these medical conditions such as seen in schizophrenia and depression.

Hence, one of the mental health goals of a psychiatrist is to ensure the patients or clients have access to health care as soon as possible after the detection of any clinical symptoms (7).

Mental Health Disorders

Mental health disorders are characterized by clinically evident imbalances in an individual’s behavioral, social, and cognitive activities/actions. There is usually an associated impairment or loss of function in the patient’s usual contributing areas.

There are quite several mental health conditions, from mild disorders to severe or malignant diseases. The following are some of the mental health disorders:

  • – Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorder is one of the commonest mental health disorders. It is characterized by the exhibition of severe fear about certain places, objects, or even situations. There are different types of the anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic attack, and separation anxiety disorder.

  • – Depression

The world health organization 2019, stated in research that 280 million people live with depression, and of this population, 9.2% of them are adolescents and children. Depression is a lot different from having mood swings or being unhappy.

In depression, the person has a low mood, accompanied by a feeling of being empty, hopeless, helpless, and worthless, there is a decline in involvement in their normal daily activities, and each episode can go on from days to weeks.

  • – PTSD

PTSD stands for post-traumatic stress disorder, and it usually occurs after an unpleasant traumatic or stressful situation. Such events are usually life-threatening, which causes the person to be very scared.

The other types or examples of mental health disorders commonly seen are:

  • – OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • – Bipolar disorder
  • – Schizophrenia
  • – Phobias
  • – Eating disorders
  • – Sleeping disorders
  • – Neurodevelopmental disorders (9,10).

Reasons Why Mental Health Is Important

Mental health goals go beyond just the absence of mental disorder in person, it also has a lot to do with the overall well-being of a person both physically and psychologically. Hence, it is important to discuss how mental health is important because our mental health affects our everyday activities and decisions.

The following are some of the reasons explaining how mental health is important:

  • – Poor mental health makes one vulnerable to poor physical conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, and cardiovascular diseases.
  • – Taking good care of mental health will prevent the onset or development of mental disorders.
  • – Good mental health gives the strength to be able to cope daily with the hurdles and challenges of life.
  • – With good mental health, we get more creative, and we can explore new and better things in life.
  • – Good mental health promotes a better life.
  • – Being in the right state of mind helps to build a cordial and healthy relationships with the people around us.
  • – Good mental health enhances and promotes productivity and the ability to maximize one’s potential
  • – With good mental health, we can contribute meaningfully to our family and the community at large.
  • – Positive self-esteem is built and sustained with the help of a good mindset and mental health (8).

Achieve Your 9 Mental Health Goals

Below are examples and inspiring mental health goals everyone should aim at:

  • 1. Develop consistent morning and daily routines
  • 2. Daily gratitude
  • 3. Seek therapy and healing
  • 4. Set healthy boundaries
  • 5. Practice self-care
  • 6. Meditation
  • 7. Good sleep
  • 8. Healthy relationships
  • 9. Positive affirmations (18).

Goal Setting For Mental Health With Self-Care

Not sure where and how to start improving your mental health and set goals for the 9 mental goals listed in the above section? Below are vital steps and measurable actions that will help improve your mental health with self-compassion:

  • A. Get more sleep

Sleep is not just to improve physical health. Getting more sleep and rest also helps to improve the functions of mental health. Studies have revealed that individuals who sleep for less than 6 hours a day record more mental distress and disorders compared to those who enjoy adequate sleep of 7 to 9 hours daily.

  • B. Good relationships

To build good mental health, it is important to strengthen one’s relationships. It is good to surround oneself with healthy relationships. Even with busy schedules, it is important and achievable to build strong healthy friendships that will help build good mental health.

There are plenty of ways to nurture good friendships and relationships. Keep in touch with friends regularly, call or chat during breaks, and plan and go on vacations together to unwind from work stress.

  • C. Physical exercises

One of the best ways to achieve one’s mental health goals is to exercise regularly. Exercise does quite several benefits to mental health, such as relieving stress, elevating moods, promoting healthy sleep patterns, and managing symptoms of certain mental health disorders.


Exercises such as mental health yoga, stretches, running, and walking, have all been studied to help improve mental health.

  • D. Coping skills

In reality, stress is unavoidable in life, hence the need to develop coping skills and mechanisms that need to be activated in times of stress. Coping mechanisms are important in dealing with stressful events. Examples of coping skills include listening to music, eating, games, singing, and meditation (13).

  • E. Get a mental health coach

In achieving optimal mental health, both in prevention, and promotion of mental health, it is important to have a brain health coach for guidance. The mental health coach is also referred to as a brain health coach.

A brain health coach is a learned fellow who will motivate and train his or her clients on steps to take to achieve optimal mental health. They provide the appropriate tools and help set personal mental health goals for their clients (14).

The Mental Health Network To Improve Mental Health

The goal of a Mental Health Network is to enhance competency and commitment, as well as the delivery and integration of support and medical services across the State, in hopes of enhancing the results and outcomes of patients with mental health disorders.

The mental health network performs its functions by :

  • – Engaging: Promoting efficient communication between important players, such as the Mental and Physical Health Commission, which is part of the State Department of Health, as well as customers and their families, caregivers or other support people, and medical experts.
  • – Learning: Sharing ideas, expertise, and information.
  • – Informing: Provide unbiased and knowledgeable guidance (15).

Mental Health Collective

The mental health Collective is a treatment program that uses a variety of therapy modalities and is operated by experienced physicians to evaluate and treat these people (18+) with mental disorders and mental health quiet riots.

The Collective offers clinical care that is result oriented and guided by neurobiology in an environment that is rooted in the community and where clients are given the support they need to successfully manage problems in life.

When determining a diagnosis and setting treatment objectives for outcome-driven care, Mental Health Collective frequently measures and observes client behavior using psychological evaluations and other assessment methods.

An objective assessment of neurodiverse problems, personality characteristics, and the accurate diagnosis of mood disorders can all be achieved through the use of psychological testing as part of a multidisciplinary diagnostic measure (16,17).


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14 Chondroitin Benefits

chondroitin benefits


Glucosamine And Chondroitin Benefits

A common dietary supplement and an essential component of the body’s cartilage is chondroitin. Because of its structural composition, taking chondroitin will help to prevent cartilage from being broken down, and in cartilage destruction, chondroitin will enhance quick repair. Chondroitin is a nutritional supplement scientifically called chondroitin sulfate.

Several studies have been done to research the importance and chondroitin benefits to health in different parts of the world, especially its benefits for osteoarthritis and other inflammatory health diseases. Clinical evidence has proven that is good for reducing pain (1).

Chondroitin sulfate is a very good compound for joints, hence, the use of chondroitin sulfate for osteoarthritis is one of the major health benefits it supplies to the human body. Chondroitin sulfate is also useful in the treatment of cataracts.

It can be used in combination with other chemical agents such as hyaluronic acid and manganese ascorbate. Other compounds that can be combined with chondroitin effectively are glucosamine and collagen peptides.

Aside from the use of chondroitin sulfate for joint diseases. It is also useful in the management of other disease entities in the body. The health benefits of chondroitin and many more will be discussed in this article (2).

Chondroitin Benefits: With And Without Glucosamine

The combination of chondroitin with glucosamine has given better and synergistic benefits to health than when either of them is used isolatedly.

Glucosamine is a compound naturally produced and secreted by the human body, and like chondroitin, glucosamine also exists in cartilage, hence, they aid cartilage production and cartilages repair when destroyed by stimulating the secretion of fats and protein component required for the repair to take place.

Glucosamine is not a common nutrient seen in foods, but it is always available as a supplement in form of tablets, capsules, and even in topical forms. The use of glucosamine benefits confers a lot of health benefits, especially a combination of chondroitin with glucosamine, which helps in the management of joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (3).

How Chondroitin With Glucosamine Works

One popular thing about chondroitin and glucosamine is the fact that they are chondroprotective. This simply means they ease every pain that has to do with cartilage and joints generally.

One of the other many chondroitin glucosamine benefits is that they possess anti-inflammatory properties which help in pain reduction and in the prevention of cartilage degeneration at joints in other to keep the structure of the cartilage in proper check.

Also, chondroitin with glucosamine helps to enhance water absorption of the cartilage in other to maintain and retain its elasticity (4).

 Glucosamine And Chondroitin Benefits For Health

The are several chondroitin glucosamine benefits to health according to a lot of research. Below are some of the health benefits of combining chondroitin with glucosamine:

  1. 1. Joint pain

Studies done in several regions of the world, including the united states have revealed that glucosamine is a very good compound in reducing joint pain. In like manner, studies have also backed up the advantages of using chondroitin sulfate for joint pain as well.

joints pain symptoms

This claim of the effectiveness of glucosamine as an agent to relieve joint pain necessitated its availability not just as a supplement but also in form of medicinal substances in the united kingdom and other places in Europe.

The combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in supplements has also proven to be useful in relieving pain in patients presenting with osteoarthritis.

Patients who are reactive or allergic to other pain relievers such as NSAIDs as celecoxib can get recommendations of chondroitin and glucosamine supplements, and has worked fine for such people in relieving the symptoms as a result of arthritis or other inflammatory knee diseases.

2. Inflammation

Aside from joint inflammation, other people who suffer from chronic inflammation in other areas of the body will also benefit from chondroitin glucosamine benefits. Inflammatory diseases linked to health conditions such as diabetes mellitus, arthritis, and chronic heart diseases have been managed using chondroitin and glucosamine supplements.

knee pain on stairs

Studies reveal that people who regularly use glucosamine supplements record mild levels of inflammation, and may never go into chronic inflammation.

3. Bone health

Studies have revealed that the use of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements have helped to reduce the incidence rate of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, and in women with osteoporosis, the use of glucosamine has also helped to slow down the progress rate of osteoporosis and prevent early complications.

Glucosamine also helps to strengthen the bone by reducing bone weakness, hence, the reason for its recommendation to patients at risk of osteoporosis such as post-menopausal women, patients on steroids, and other high-risk patients (3).

4. Osteoarthritis

In osteoarthritis, there is cartilage tissue degeneration at the joints which manifests majorly as pain and swelling. Chondroitin and glucosamine, on the other hand, have cartilage-protecting properties which help to avert the effects of osteoarthritis on the joints.

They also possess anti-inflammatory properties that help to reduce inflammatory symptoms such as pain, redness, swelling, and loss of function. When chondroitin and glucosamine supplements are being used, they aid in the protection and preservation of chondrocytes which helps to sustain cartilage tissue.

In the osteoarthritis treatment guidelines released in 2019, chondroitin sulfate was recommended for hand osteoarthritis by the American college of rheumatology. Although the national center for complementary health says the use of chondroitin and glucosamine is like using a placebo, it isn’t harmful but there are no clear benefits of it to the treatment of osteoarthritis, and the supplements are not harmful too.

However, several other studies have been done which reveal that chondroitin and glucosamine supplements are useful in relieving pain in osteoarthritis which has in a way rule out the claim by the national center for complementary health.

5. Rheumatoid arthritis

Research done helped to reveal that patients who use glucosamine hydrochloride in rheumatoid arthritis were relieved of their joint pains, however, studies are yet to prove if chondroitin sulfate lead to a reduction in the associated joint edema (5).

Other Health Effects Of Chondroitin Sulfate

From past and recent studies on the health benefits of chondroitin sulfate, results have shown that there are potential chondroitin benefits to human health. Some of the health benefits of chondroitin sulfate are:

6. Cataract

According to research, the eye is shielded during cataract surgery by injecting a solution containing sodium hyaluronate and chondroitin sulfate into the eye. The united states Food and Drug Administration has examined a wide range of products combining sodium hyaluronate and chondroitin sulfate to be utilized following cataract surgery.

Contrary to other similar therapies, it is unclear if combining chondroitin sulfate with sodium hyaluronic acid solutions assists relieve pressure inside the eye following cataract surgery. Early research suggests that when a cataract is removed, a particular eye solution with chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid can lower eye pressure and enhance general eye health.

The drops don’t seem to be much better than those that only include hyaluronic acid or another substance called hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, though. It is unknown how chondroitin sulfate-only treatments would affect cataract surgery.

7. Bladder inflammation

Some low-quality studies have suggested that bladder inflammation symptoms can be reduced by injecting a chondroitin sulfate mixture into the bladder, alongside or without hyaluronate.

Moreover, a preliminary study suggests that oral administration of the combination drug CystoProtek, which contains chondroitin sulfate, can reduce bladder irritation. Nonetheless, other more reliable studies reveal that putting chondroitin sulfate further into the bladder does not alleviate symptoms.

8. Dry eyes

There is conflicting evidence on chondroitin sulfate’s ability to treat dry eyes. The early study points to a reduction in dry eyes while using the chondroitin sulfate eye drops.

Yet, additional data indicate that chondroitin sulfate-containing eye drops perform less well than tear substitutes. According to additional studies, using a particular eye drop combining chondroitin sulfate and xanthan gum 4 times per day for 60 days did not increase tears but may decrease the intensity of dry eye symptoms.

9. Psoriasis skin disease

According to a preliminary study, consuming chondroitin sulfate for two to three months helps psoriasis sufferers feel less pain and has a positive impact on their skin.

However, other research indicates that in persons with psoriasis and joint osteoarthritis, taking chondroitin sulfate every day for three months does not lessen the severity of psoriasis.

10. Metastatic joint pain

According to a preliminary study, consuming chondroitin and glucosamine in up to three divided dosages daily for twenty-four weeks reduces joint pain and other side effects brought on by medications used in the treatment of breast cancer.

11. Acid reflux

Hyaluronate and chondroitin sulfate syrup appear to lessen the severity of acid reflux complaints when used in conjunction with traditional therapies like antacids.

12. Urinary tract infections

According to preliminary studies, women with a history of Urinary tract infections may have a reduction in urinary tract infections after receiving a specific chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronate solution through a urethral catheter every week for four weeks, followed by a monthly infusion for roughly 5 months.

13. Bone and joint disease

This is also referred to as Kashin-Beck disease. Glucosamine solution and Chondroitin may help persons with Kashin-Beck illness feel less discomfort, according to preliminary studies.

Moreover, glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate are taken together to help prevent the narrowing of the joint space in those with this degenerative disease. However, it is uncertain if consuming chondroitin sulfate alone decreases joint space narrowing.

14. Overactive bladder

According to preliminary studies, administering sodium chondroitin sulfate via a urinary catheter toward the bladder enhances the quality of life for persons with hyperactive bladders (6).

Chondroitin And Glucosamine Dosage: Side Effects

According to the majority of research, chondroitin, and glucosamine are both safe for usage by the majority of people and have not been associated with any negative side effects. There have only been minor adverse effects reported, such as headache, nausea, and upset stomach.

However take into consideration that glucosamine is frequently made from chitin, a substance that can be found in shellfish. As a result, those who are allergic to shellfish should carefully read the label and choose products derived from cows or pigs.

Furthermore, a fungus can be used to make glucosamine. Also, the supplements might not be ideal for people who follow a vegetarian diet because some of the ingredients are derived from animals.

The supplementation of chondroitin with glucosamine may also interact with anticoagulant drugs like Warfarin, lower insulin sensitivity, and impact blood sugar levels. Because of this, you ought to seek medical advice before using them.

Other highlighted chondroitin glucosamine side effects are:

  • – Nausea
  • – Vomiting
  • – Skin rashes and itching
  • – Constipation
  • – Abdominal discomfort
  • – Diarrhea

Side effects pointing to allergic reactions such as rashes on the skin, itching of the body, and swelling in certain parts of the body such as the lips, should be reported to the medical personnel as soon as possible and the medication stopped immediately (7).

Chondroitin And Glucosamine Supplement: Can they reduce pain for osteoarthritis?

Some people assert that the dietary supplement glucosamine chondroitin will lessen knee osteoarthritis symptoms. It functions by keeping the cartilage in the joints in good condition. The tissue that connects the bones is called cartilage. The united states food and drugs association is yet to approve the use of chondroitin and glucosamine supplements for use.

The chondroitin glucosamine supplement is generally available in different processed forms, tablets, capsules, and in granulated forms.

However, the united states FDA suggests that citizens follow the guidelines below while using such supplements:

  • – Carefully read the directions on the package’s label.
  • – Natural does not guarantee a product is secure for consumption by people.
  • – Be on the lookout for items with USP following the component name. This indicates that the maker complied with US Pharmacopoeia criteria.
  • – A nationally recognized food or drug company is more likely to manufacture and sell supplements that are subject to stringent regulations. To learn more about the procedure by which the product was created, you can email the company.

The chondroitin and glucosamine supplements should be carefully kept out of the reach of children and should be stored at room temperature of less than or equal to 30 degrees C (7).

Chondroitin Versus MSM for Arthritis

MSM is an acronym for Methylsulfonylmethane. Every cell in the body stores this sulfur molecule. It may come from sources such as animals and plants or be created in a lab. MSM, a superior source of sulfur, enhances joint health by enhancing the body’s ability to generate collagen for collagenous health and membrane-bound flexibility. It also fosters the development of hair, skin, and nails (8).

Natural substances that are found in the joints include MSM and chondroitin. They are used to treat joint inflammation and relieve joint discomfort. Aspirin and ibuprofen are two prominent anti-inflammatory and non-steroidal medications recommended for joint pain and arthritic problems. Arthritis is a prevalent ailment associated with aging nowadays.

Three naturally occurring substances, MSM, Chondroitin, and Glucosamine, are typically prescribed for reducing pain and decreasing the course of arthritis without producing the negative effects caused by other medications because these medications have several side effects. Osteoarthritis is the name for this form of “wear and tear” arthritis. The very potent anti-inflammatory action of MSM explains why it is highly recommended in cases of rheumatoid arthritis.

In summary:

  • – MSM is an acronym for methylsulfonylmethane, while chondroitin sulfate is seen in the collages in joints
  • – MSM is best used in the management of rheumatoid arthritis, while chondroitin sulfate is known for its action against osteoarthritis
  • – It is recommended that 2000mg of MSM should be used every eight hours, that is, three times a day, while chondroitin sulfate is best used at 1200mg in three divided doses daily (9).


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What Is An Anti-inflammatory Lifestyle

anti-inflammatory lifestyle


An Anti-Inflammatory Lifestyle And Its Benefits

Anti-inflammatory simply refers to the component of a treatment or feature of a substance that is used in the management of inflammation or to reduce swelling. Anti-inflammatory meaning anti-inflammatory drugs to a lot of people make up the majority of the analgesics available, this group of drugs helps to relieve pain by reducing the ongoing inflammatory process as opposed to the opioids that relieve pain by acting on the central nervous system to block the pathway of pain directly (1).

Osteoarthritis disease may be more common among people who do not lead an anti-inflammatory lifestyle when young and hence experience health issues in their mature years. An anti-inflammatory lifestyle also includes healthy foods, such as anti inflammatory omega 3.

Types And Examples Of Anti-inflammatory Lifestyle

Anti-inflammatory is not limited to only anti-inflammatory drugs only, other things can serve as anti-inflammatory functions. These are:

  1. 1. Anti-inflammatory medicines
  2. 2. Anti-inflammatory foods
  3. 3. Anti-inflammatory exercises
  4. 4. Anti-inflammatory supplements

1. Anti-inflammatory medicines to reduce inflammation

Anti-inflammatory meaning anti-inflammatory drugs are medications that help to reduce inflammation, they are popularly referred to as NSAIDs, meaning non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are drugs that when taken function to help relieve pain and reduce associated edema and swelling (7).

Common examples are aspirin diclofenac and COX-2 inhibiting drugs such as celecoxib. Studies reveal that millions of people use NSAIDs daily to help relieve pain, especially headaches, swelling of body parts from inflammation, and elevated body temperature (6).

Most Common Examples Of Nsaids

There are three commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These are:

  • – Aspirin: Aspirin is a commonly used NSAID that can be used solely or combined with other agents. Some brands that used it solely are Byer or St. Joseph. And brands that used them in combination such as Ascriptin, Anacin, and Excedrin (6).
  • – Ibuprofen: Ibuprofen is another popular NSAID used generally, some brand examples are Motrin and Advil
  • – Naproxen sodium: A popular brand of naproxen sodium is Aleve (6).

Classification Of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Anti-inflammatory meaning NSAIDs commonly can be classified according to their structure chemically, and their selectivity.

  • – Acetylated salicylates: such as aspirin
  • – Non-acetylated salicylates: examples are the salsalate and diflunisal
  • – Propionic acids: examples are naproxen and ibuprofen
  • – Acetic acids: common examples are diclofenac and indomethacin
  • – Others are enolic acids with examples such as meloxicam, and anthranilic acids such as mefenamic acid (9).

According To Specificity

The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs prevent the production of prostaglandins by the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). COX-1 and COX-2 are the two forms of COX that your body makes. The majority of the NSAIDs are not specific, this translates to the blocking of both cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-1 and COX-2). COX-1 is responsible for stomach mucosal protection, while COX-2 induces inflammation (8).

The availability of NSAIDs over the counter most of the time is dependent on their specificity, for example, in the united states, some non-specific medications can be gotten over the counter, while others will require a prescription from a doctor before they can be dispensed. Similarly, this also goes for the specific NSAIDs

The following are some examples of nonspecific NSAIDs that can be gotten over the counter in the united states,

  • – Ibuprofen( motrin and advil)
  • – Aspirin in highdose
  • – Naproxen sodium ( brands like aleve and naprosyn) (8).

Other NSAIDs are nonspecific and cannot be dispensed in the united states unless there is a doctor’s prescription, examples of this group are:

  • – Diclofenac, a branded example is zorvolex
  • – Indomethacin, brand such as tivorbex
  • – Diflunisal
  • – Etodolac
  • – Mefenamic acid, a brand such as ponstel.
  • – Other common examples of prescriptive non-specific NSAIDs are ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, sulindac, and nabumetone (8).
  • – Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are a group of NSAIDs that block more of the cyclooxygenase-2 than cyclooxygenase-1. in the united states, celecoxib (Celebrex), is the only prescriptive COX-2 inhibitor available (8).

Mechanism Of Action Of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

The primary mode of action of NSAIDs is by blocking the production and secretion of certain chemicals in the body that is responsible for the process of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory meaning NSAIDs are mostly good for the treatment of pain that occur as a result of damage to the soft tissues in the body, as in arthritis.

Additionally, NSAIDs also do part of the work of a steroid without exposing the patient to the side effects, and just as steroids are used in reducing edema and inflammations, NSAIDs also act similarly to help reduce pain and swelling in body tissues, especially around joints and muscles (6).

Indications For The Use Of Nsaids

Anti-inflammatory meaning NSAIDs are commonly used for quite a several clinical conditions, especially diseases of the joints. The following are some of the conditions that will require the use of NSAIDs:

  • – Inflammation of the joint, arthritis
  • – Osteoarthritis
  • – Rheumatoid arthritis
  • – Gout
  • – Toothache
  • – Backpain
  • – Headache
  • – Myalgia
  • – Tendonitis
  • – Dysmenorrhea, painful menstruation
  • – Fever
  • – Autoimmune diseases (6).

NSAIDs are available in different forms, they are available in form of tablets, suppositories, and tablets. Other forms in which NSAIDs are available are in sprays, creams, and liquids (7).

What Are The Side Effects Of Nsaids?

There is simply no drug without its side effects, as much as NSAIDs are very versatile in the treatment of various diseases, it also has their side effects which are quite a number. Below are some of the side effects of NSAIDs:

  • – Gastric side effects: most of the side effects of NSAIDs are usually a result of the inhibition of COX-1, and COX-1 is the enzyme responsible for the inhibition of gastric mucosa protection by prostaglandins, and this damage is more severe in patients that have the previous history of peptic ulcer disease, therefore, NSAIDs which are COX-2 selective or specific will be more beneficial for this group of the patient (9).
  • – Hepatic side effects: diclofenac is the medicine with the higher risk of hepatotoxicity among the drugs belonging to NSAIDs, other medicines here are not usually hepatotoxic and hospital admission on account of liver damage is not common as well
  • – Renal side effects: the renal adverse effect is common among patients that have an underlying renal pathology or electrolytes imbalances, usually, NSAIDs will cause a reduction in the level of prostaglandins, and these prostaglandins are responsible for maintaining good renal hemodynamics, so when the levels are reduced in a known kidney disease, it accelerates further complications. Examples of such complications are acute kidney injury, nephrotic syndrome, and electrolyte imbalances. Others are interstitial nephritis, and renal artery stenosis (9).
  • – Cardiovascular side effects: the use of NSAIDs increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders such as acute myocardial infarction, embolic events, thrombosis, and atrial flutters and fibrillations. Diclofenac has been recorded as the NSAID with the highest cardiovascular risk

Other common side effects are chest pain, abdominal discomfort, nausea, and vomiting (9).

2. Foods for Anti-Inflammatory Lifestyle

Anti-inflammatories are not limited to just medicines, anti-inflammatory food is also very important, with adequate consumption of the right anti-inflammatory foods, the immune system gets adequate stimulation to fight against any pathogenic microorganisms when they come in contact with the body. Anti-inflammatory foods are also very important to combat severe inflammation that persists for a long time even without a foreign pathogen.

Some of the non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, and heart diseases, that affect the body system have been linked to chronic inflammation, and all of these are controllable with diet. Hence, another reason why anti-inflammatory foods are very important (2).

anti inflammatory omega 3

Several epidemiological studies have revealed that processed foods may lead to obesity and promote inflammation in the body. Examples of these inflammatory foods are red meat, processed and fried foods. An anti-inflammatory diet contains plant-based foods, such as fruits and vegetables and omega-3 fatty acids. A good example of such diet is Mediterranean diet that also contains omega-3 and turmeric.

Examples Of Anti-Inflammatory Foods

Studies reveal that some foods can help to alter inflammatory processes, especially chronic inflammation. Below are examples of some anti-inflammatory foods available:

  1. 1. Fatty fish

Fatty fish is one of the most commonest and good sources of protein and fatty acids, especially the long-chain fatty acids such as anti-inflammatory omega 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and another fatty acid component in fatty fish is docosahexaenoic acid. It is good that the anti-inflammatory omega3 fatty acid is a component of almost all kinds of fish but some fatty fish contain it the most examples of such are:

  • – Sardines
  • – Herring
  • – Mackerel
  • – Others are salmon and anchovies (11).

Anti-inflammatory omega 3 is a form of healthy fat seen in food that helps to build the body and also help to maintain an overall health. One of the best benefits of anti-inflammatory omega 3 is in the treatment and prevention of inflammation (4) and cardiovascular disease. Aside from the inflammation function, they also help to keep the body organs in good shape and set the immune system on alert to help fight invading pathogens (5).

green lipped mussel

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), helps to prevent and alter chronic inflammatory processes that can lead to further complications such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney diseases, and metabolic syndrome. When these fats are consumed, they are broken down by the body into smaller components called resolvins and protectins, and they function basically as anti-inflammatory substances (3).

Studies reveal that individuals that consume the anti-inflammatory omega 3 fatty acids, salmon fish, and docosahexaenoic acid have the health benefit of reduction in their inflammatory markers levels such as CRP (C-reactive protein), and ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) in addition to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease(11).

  1. 2. Berries

Berries are fruits that are rich in minerals, vitamins, and fibers. There are different kinds of fibers such as strawberry, blueberry, blackberry, and lots more. Berries are rich in antioxidants named anthocyanins, and one unique advantage of anthocyanin is that it contains compounds that perform anti-inflammatory functions. Studies have revealed that individuals that eat blueberries have high production of natural killer cells (NK cells) compared to others not consume the powder (11).

anti-inflammatory foods

Other anti-inflammatory foods are:

  • – Fruits
  • – Green vegetables
  • – Nuts (like walnut)
  • – Whole grain meals
  • – Tomatoes (12).

3. Exercises for Anti-Inflammatory Lifestyle

Just like medicine and food, anti-inflammatories also include exercises in relieving the symptoms of inflammation. Especially inflammation that affects the joints and muscles, and studies reveal that regular exercise is one of the main components of altering the inflammation process, in cases of joint inflammations like osteoarthritis, anti-inflammatory meaning NSAIDs are sometimes combined with exercises as prescribed by the physician and physical therapist to prevent stiffness of the joints. The following are examples of the best exercise to tackle inflammation:

  • – Walking

As easy as it sounds, walking is one of the easiest ways to tackle inflammation, especially inflammation affecting the joints. and the easiest way to exercise the body as well. Walking as low as a twenty-minute walk a day can lower inflammatory processes, a simple walk outside the house or walk around the garden will do a lot to benefit the body and inflammatory sites (13).

  • – Strength training

Strength training is one of the key exercises to protect the body against inflammation, it is majorly an anti-inflammatory serving as a prophylaxis. Either heavy or light weight lifting, it does a lot of good to the body to slow down inflammatory processes, it is associated with the release of cytokines and growth hormones as well as reducing the risk of the body to chronic inflammation predisposed chronic diseases such as hypertensive heart diseases, diabetes mellitus, and cancers (14).

  • – Yoga

Yoga is more than just body motion exercise and impressing the viewers, studies have revealed a lot of benefits that can be gotten from yoga exercise. Apart from its fitness benefits, yoga has been found to confer anti-inflammatory benefits, it can help to reduce chronic inflammatory processes that predispose individuals to chronic diseases such as heart diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and metabolic disorders.

anti-inflammatory yoga

Yoga instructors reveal that breathing in and out during yoga exercises helps to send a signal to the parasympathetic nervous system of the brain which in turn helps to control stress and down-regulate ongoing inflammatory processes in the body. It is therefore good to practice yoga for these benefits and also to calm the body (14).

4. Supplements to fight Inflammation

Anti-inflammatory meaning actions against inflammation are not limited to medicines, exercises, and foods alone, there are tested and trusted supplements that are recommended to help combat inflammatory processes in the body. The following are the best supplements for inflammation, especially inflammations affecting the joints of the body:

  • – Glucosamine

Glucosamine has been identified as one of the best anti-inflammatory supplements against joint inflammation. They help to keep the joint cartilage healthy and reduce the pain experienced during arthritis of the joint. Glucosamine is also more important in the elderly because the level tends to decrease as one grows old.

  • – Omega 3 fatty acids

Anti-inflammatory omega 3 fatty acids supplements have been shown to contain substances that help to decrease the production and secretion of inflammatory chemicals, especially in rheumatoid arthritis.

  • – Green tea

Studies have revealed that green tea is made up of substances that perform anti-inflammatory function in helping to combat inflammation as well as joint pain in inflammations of the knee. Green tea also contains anti-oxidant properties (10).


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  9. 9.,meloxicam%2C+piroxicam)+anthranilic+acids+(
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7 Treatments For Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain

treatments for rheumatoid arthritis pain


Causes, Symptoms, Risk-Factors and Treatments For Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain

Rheumatoid arthritis is a type of autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system is attacking normal body tissues, particularly tissues that line the joint bilaterally. Rheumatoid arthritis is not limited to the joints alone, it can also affect some other systems of the body.

Studies have revealed that the actual cause of this autoimmune disease is not known yet, however, there are treatment options available for its management both medical treatment and lifestyle changes (1).

What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis is defined as a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by symmetrical migratory polyarthritis that usually affects the hands and the feet. It is a systemic disease and usually leads to inflammation of the synovial membrane causing synovitis.

rheumatoid arthritis elbow

Rheumatoid arthritis can affect any joint so long the joint is lined by a synovial membrane. Being a systemic disease, it can affect other organs and systems of the body such as the heart, the eyes, and the skin. The flare usually more when it is affecting individuals with a family history or genetic susceptibility (2).

What’s Rheumatoid Factor?

Rheumatoid arthritis cannot be discussed without mentioning the rheumatoid factor. A rheumatoid factor test is a blood test usually carried out to determine the amount of rheumatoid factor present in the body.

An individual with an autoimmune disease will demonstrate a high level of rheumatoid factor in their bloodstream which does not automatically mean rheumatoid arthritis, a patient with another autoimmune disease such as Sjogren’s syndrome will also have elevated rheumatoid factor (3).

The Normal Joint Physiology

To understand what is happening in a joint with rheumatoid arthritis, it is also important to understand how normal joint works and what in a normal joint gets affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

The position where two or more bones meet is referred to as a joint. The presence of joints in the body permits us to move in different directions either laterally, medially, internally rotation or externally rotation, the knee joint for instance is one of the physiologically important joints in the body because it helps to bear the weight of the body, and it helps to stand properly.

The distal part of each bone is covered by cartilage, a tissue made up of smooth surfaces that help to keep the joints in place, and also permits movement without friction. In between the joint is the synovium which contains the synovial fluid, a thick slippery fluid that protects the joint. There is also the presence of tendons that helps to attach the bones to the muscles (4).

Pathophysiology Of Rheumatoid Arthritis

The pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis is still been studied according to researchers as it is currently not understood. In the presence of genetic susceptibility, the presence of a trigger such as infection or smoking will lead to an autoimmune reaction.

This autoimmune reaction will furthermore manifest as inflammation of the synovium and other joint tissues with other systemic manifestations.

Before full-blown rheumatoid arthritis occurs, there is a pre-rheumatoid phase of the disease that gradually progresses in different phases to actual and active rheumatoid arthritis.

In conclusion, chronic inflammation and hypertrophy of the synovium will lead to tissue destruction as well as the cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and vascular structures. Although the articular structures above are the primary areas of attack by rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis also affects other tissues (2).

Comparison Between Rheumatoid Arthritis And Other Articular Diseases

Rheumatoid arthritis should be compared with other articular diseases such as osteoarthritis and lupus for better understanding.

  • – Rheumatoid arthritis vs lupus

Rheumatoid arthritis and lupus are commonly confused or misdiagnosed one for one because of their similarity in clinical manifestations. Rheumatoid arthritis and lupus are both types of autoimmune diseases in that they result from the body’s immune system attacking its normal cells.

The clinical features of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus often mimic each other. Symptoms like pain, joint stiffness, and swelling are not severe in patients with lupus and they occur slowly.

However, to differentiate lupus from rheumatoid arthritis, there are certain symptoms patients manifest that are specific to lupus alone, such as the butterfly rash also called malar rash, ulcers, skin rashes, low white blood cell count, and others.

Interestingly, both rheumatoid arthritis and lupus have no cure but they can be managed symptomatically for patient tolerance (5).

  • – Rheumatoid arthritis vs osteoarthritis hand

A lot of studies have been ongoing comparing the manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis in the hand joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease while osteoarthritis is an articular disease of wear and tear that occur as a result of joint overuse.

Studies have revealed that the metacarpophalangeal joint of the big finger in the hand is commonly affected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These patients are commonly present with swelling and stiffness of the joint.

In rheumatoid arthritis of the hand, distal interphalangeal joints of the hand and toes are usually spared. When rheumatoid arthritis is the joint junction between the ulnar and radius bone it usually manifests as wrist pain and tenderness. Rheumatoid arthritis has a predisposition to affecting the small joints first.

Unlike rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis has an initial target for the big joints of the body. When the hand is affected, the index finger and the thumb are commonly affected. To studies, a patient who complains about osteoarthritis in the hand mostly complains of the affectation in their dominant hand (6).

Causes Of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease that occurs as a result of the body’s immune system affecting its normal cells. However, the specific etiology of rheumatoid arthritis is not yet known.

In rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory cells are sent by the immune system to the joint lining and other systemic areas of the body. The antibodies released caused the disintegration of the synovial cells and consequently led to inflammation. There is a release of chemical substances that will lead to the destruction of the cartilage, tendons, and ligaments.

If rheumatoid arthritis is not managed thoroughly early, it can lead to total joint destruction and misalignment of the joint (7).

Risk Factors Of Rheumatoid Arthritis

The following factors will increase the risk of predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis:

  • – Age: anyone at any age is at risk of rheumatoid arthritis irrespective of the age of the individual. But commonly, it is commoner in the middle age group.
  • – Sex: rheumatoid is more commoner in women than in the male gender.
  • – Family history: family history is another strong risk factor for developing autoimmune disease. The presence of rheumatoid arthritis in any member of the family, especially the first-degree relatives is a risk factor for developing rheumatoid arthritis.
  • – Smoking: Smoking cigarette increases the likelihood of developing rheumatoid arthritis, especially in people that are genetically predisposed to RA. Smoking also causes poor prognosis in such patients.
  • – Obesity: being overweight or obese increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Obesity is an associated high-risk factor for articular diseases (8).
  • – Diet: excessive consumption of a diet rich in sugar, sodium, and red meat increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Iron has also been traceable to the development of rheumatoid arthritis.
  • – Early exposure: early exposure to triggers such as smoking in nursing mothers makes their children passive smokers, according to the center for disease control (CDC), such early exposure increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (7).

Joints Commonly Affected By Rheumatoid Arthritis

The following joints of the body are commonly affected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and the patient can feel pain in the following areas:

  • – Hands
  • – Fingers
  • – Toes
  • – Feet
  • – Elbow
  • – Others are wrists, knees, and ankles (1).

Other areas of the body aside from joints affected by rheumatoid arthritis are:

  • – Heart
  • – Lungs
  • – Eyes
  • – Skin
  • – Others are kidneys, vascular tissues, and salivary glands (8).

Rheumatoid Arthritis Elbow

Just as in other joints of the body, rheumatoid arthritis elbow joint will lead to the progressive and slow destruction of the joint tissues. In certain individuals, rheumatoid arthritis elbow manifests as a bulge-like swelling around the elbow due to the chronic effect of the inflammation on the joint.

When the first joint to be affected is the elbow, then the pain will start from the elbow joint progressively affecting other joints of the body such as the toes, hands, hip, and knee joint.

When the diagnosis is picked early, it will lead to rapid inflammation of the elbow joint tissues such as the synovium and the bursa causing synovitis and bursitis, which occurs when the fluid pads in the joints get inflamed. Continuous and uncontrolled edema from inflammation can cause the nerves around the joint to be compressed (9).

Symptoms Of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease, hence, common symptoms seen in the patients are the signs of inflammation and pains around the joint.

The symptoms reach the peak when the patient has flares and they subside or fade off in the time of remission when the patient is currently not under any attack.

Symptoms are commonly affected in joints of the wrists, hands, toes, and knee joints. Also, other tissues of the body can be affected such as the heart, the skin, the lungs, and the eyes (7).

The following are the main symptoms commonly manifested by patients with rheumatoid arthritis:

  • – Joint pain
  • – Edema of the joint
  • – Joint redness
  • – Differential warmth of the affected joint
  • – Joint stiffness is worse after waking up from bed and can last for up to 30 minutes.
  • – Joint/bone deviation, is commonly recorded in the ulnar bone. Rheumatoid arthritis ulnar deviation is characterized by the bending of fingers to the lateral side facing the pinky finger and the wrist towards the thumb.

Other symptoms experienced by people with rheumatoid arthritis are:

  • – Fatigues, demonstrated by extreme tiredness and generalized body weakness
  • – Anorexia, lack of appetite
  • – Weight loss
  • – Hyperpyrexia, a very high fever
  • – Excessive sweating
  • – Eye dryness, usually from inflammation
  • – Chest pain
  • – Rheumatoid nodules, this is a form of lump usually seen under the skin of the affected joints. Although not always painful, some patients elicit tenderness on palpation of the nodules.
  • – Most often than not, when rheumatoid arthritis occurs, it is usually bilaterally more than just one part of the body, although not all the time (4).

Diagnosis Of Rheumatoid Arthritis

As much treatment is important in making a patient with rheumatoid arthritis feel better, it is also important to make a good diagnosis that will guide the treatment. A specialized physician called a rheumatologist is often in charge of caring for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Diagnosis entails a detailed medical history, examination, laboratory, and imaging studies.

  • – Medical history: A detailed history of the joint symptoms is very important when it started if it is recurrent, the level of severity of the pain, what the patient has done to get relieved the pain, and if there is a family history of similar symptoms in the family or a family history of rheumatoid arthritis.
  • – Examination: On examination, the doctor can notice swelling around the joint, the presence of differential warmth or redness, difficulty moving the limbs, and tenderness of the joint on palpation.
  • – Blood tests: blood tests are usually done to check for antibodies, infectious agents, and the presence of rheumatoid factor to further ascertain the diagnosis. The following blood tests are done:
  1. a) Rheumatoid factor: rheumatoid factor is commonly seen in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Another type of antibody commonly seen is a cyclic citrullinated peptide in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
  2. b) ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate): ESR is usually done to confirm the presence of an ongoing inflammatory process. C-reactive protein can also be done alongside ESR still for the same purpose.
  • – Imaging studies: this includes an x-ray, CT scan, or MRI. These tests are usually done to check the bones, joints, and surrounding soft tissues. Erosion is the major usually checked for. Rheumatoid arthritis x ray hand will show the affected small joints, and how bad it is and can also help to know when the treatment is winning (10).

7 Treatments For Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain

The treatments for rheumatoid arthritis symptoms include the use of medication and lifestyle changes. People with RA have the option to first try diet and lifestyle changes to reduce pain and rheumatoid arthritis symptoms at their own. If pain relief is not experienced, they may want to see a licensed physician for prescription medicines that may help reduce pain and stiffness associated with joint damage.


In the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, the physician will use some or most of these medications in the management of the patient:

  1. 1. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): NSAIDs are commonly used with caution and prescription in rheumatoid arthritis patients in the treatment of pain and inflammatory symptoms.
  2. 2. Steroids: steroids can also be prescribed by the doctor to treat pain and reduce the symptoms felt by the patient.
  3. 3. (DMARDs): DMARDs is an acronym for disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. The drug works by reducing the disease progression of rheumatoid arthritis and they can do this by inhibiting the immune response of the body.
  4. 4. Biologics: Biologics are new generational drugs often referred to as modified DMARDs. Instead of blocking the immune system of the patient like DMARDs will do, biologics work against inflammation by slowing down the systemic inflammatory reaction.

Lifestyle changes

The following lifestyle changes will help to improve the quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis:

5. Exercise as recommended by an Occupational Therapist. Proper rest.

6. Anti-inflammatory diets such as foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids to reduce inflammation.

7. Hot or cold compress as prescribed by the physician, similar to occupational therapy (7).


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9 Natural Treatments For Fibromyalgia

natural treatments for fibromyalgia


Natural Treatments For Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is also known as chronic general (widespread) body pain. Fibromyalgia also presents with sleep problems or insomnia, weakness, and extreme sensitivity to pain. It can also be referred to as Fibromyositis, Fibrositis, or Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS). Fibromyalgia is a compound term derived from a Latin word (‘fibro-’) and two Greek words (‘myo-’ and ‘algia’). ‘Fibro-’ means fibrous tissues. ‘Myo-’ means muscle and ’algia’ means pain. Thus, the term ‘Fibromyalgia’ literally means fibrous tissues and muscle pain.

Prevalence of Fibromyalgia

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that Fibromyalgia Syndrome affects 4 million United States adults; this amount is about 2% of the adults.[1] Fibromyalgia affects more women than men. Fibromyalgia, its likely causes, and various treatments are thoroughly explained further in this article.

What are the Symptoms of Fibromyalgia?

People diagnosed with Fibromyalgia may have diverse symptoms. The most usual symptoms are;

  • – Widespread pain, headache, and stiffness.
  • – Sleep problems or Insomnia.
  • – General body weakness (fatigue).
  • – Cognitive disruptions such as Inattention, poor memory, and mental dullness.
  • – Depression and anxiety.

Other symptoms include;

  • – Gastrointestinal problems such as stomachache, constipation, and bloating.
  • – Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction or TMJ syndrome (Pain in the jaw joint and surrounding muscles).
  • – Tingling and numbing sensations of the peripheries (the hands and feet).

How do I find out if I have Fibromyalgia?

There are no particular laboratory tests or scans to diagnose Fibromyalgia currently. If you suspect you have Fibromyalgia, you may need to see several doctors. Your doctor (based on familiar experiences) may diagnose Fibromyalgia as a result of your major symptoms along with other symptoms.

Other doctors may conclude on Fibromyalgia based on the established criteria by the American College of Rheumatology for diagnosing Fibromyalgia: pain and symptoms for over one week (based on the number of tender points among 19 parts of the body), the level of tiredness severity, cognitive problems and waking unrefreshed, symptoms lasting 3 months or more at the same level and ruling out of other health problems that may mimic pain and some other symptoms.[2]

Is there chronic pain or chronic fatigue associated with fibromyalgia? Chronic fatigue syndrome has been observed in clinical trial associated with fibromyalgia However, you may benefit more from a Rheumatologist (a doctor who specializes in musculoskeletal conditions) to reduce pain associated with fibromyalgia. Using your intensive history taking, the knowledge of all the symptoms you experience, and ruling out other related health issues, they may be able to diagnose Fibromyalgia.

What causes Fibromyalgia Pain?

The cause of Fibromyalgia is unknown. However, scientists have said that it may be a result of the unusual processing of pain signals even in the absence of pain stimuli. Usually, pain may result from known causes such as injuries and diseases.

In individuals with Fibromyalgia, however, pain does not result from direct causes but from abnormal pain signals processing. The fact that there is no direct pain cause, makes Fibromyalgia Syndrome chronic and difficult to cure. However, Fibromyalgia patients benefit from some medications and lifestyle changes (such as practicing Fibromyalgia Yoga, getting sufficient sleep, and stress management). Examples of lifestyle changes that can be adopted, as well as examples of Fibromyalgia Yoga are soon stated in this article.

The presence of certain genes occurs commonly amongst Fibromyalgia patients. Due to this, some researchers also presume that these genes may cause Fibromyalgia patients to unusually process stimuli that are not painful to others. Many other scientists are looking at possibilities of problems with how the brain and spinal cord process pain. Many researchers have linked Fibromyalgia to some illnesses, traumatic events, psychological stress, and injuries. Studies are still ongoing, however, on some other possible causes.

Is There A Fibromyalgia Treatment?

There is no cure for Fibromyalgia. However, people living with Fibromyalgia can benefit a great deal from medical and non-medical management. These may help fibromyalgia easier to live with and help to alleviate symptoms. These treatments will be explained further in this article.

What Are The Treatment Options?

Drug Treatments for Fibromyalgia Symptoms

A set of medications prescribed by doctors and rheumatologists may be beneficial for alleviating some of the symptoms of Fibromyalgia Syndrome. These include a set of medications that may provide pain relief, insomnia, cognitive dysfunctions, fatigue, and depression.

Your drugs should be taken according to your doctor’s or rheumatologist’s prescriptions. You should also report serious side effects promptly to your doctor. Inform your doctor about all the drugs you take. Fibromyalgia treatment requires the combined knowledge of several professionals including doctors, rheumatologists, therapists, and yogi. Some drugs can be beneficial to relieve your fibromyalgia symptoms.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves three medications to specifically treat Fibromyalgia. Some of them are Milnacipran (Savella), Duloxetine (Cymbalta), and Pregabalin (Lyrica). Some over-the-counter drugs may help to relieve Fibromyalgia pain such as Aspirin, Ibuprofen, and Naproxen. Some antidepressants and sleep-improving medications can also be prescribed to help relieve your insomnia, pain, and depression symptoms.

Antidepressants can also assist in reducing your sleep quality problems and emotional problems. Examples of antidepressants that are commonly used to treat Fibromyalgia include Amitriptyline (Elavil), Citalopram, Fluoxetine, and Sertraline. Sleep-improving drugs help to initiate or maintain sleep. , of sleep-improving drugs that are commonly used to treat Fibromyalgia include Neurontin (Gabapentin) and Zanaflex (Tizanidine). With experience and the help of your doctor, you may learn which drug combination benefits you most.

9 Natural Treatments for Fibromyalgia or Non-Drug Therapy

People with Fibromyalgia may benefit from natural remedies for fibromyalgia, such as lifestyle modification, therapies, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Studies prove that these non-drug treatments are very effective for patients with Fibromyalgia.

  1. 1. Lifestyle modifications to relieve Fibromyalgia symptoms may include stress management, getting enough sleep, getting enough nutrition, and engaging in physical exercises.


  1. 2. Stress management is a wide range of methods, strategies, or psychotherapies that improve quality of life by regulating your level of stress. For relieving symptoms associated with fibromyalgia, stress management involves practicing meditation, Fibromyalgia Yoga, massage therapy, and adjusting your work.
  2. Fibromyalgia Yoga


  1. Fibromyalgia Yoga poses recommended by Shoosh Crotzer are Uttanasana (standing forward bend), Setu Bandha Sarvangasana (bridge pose), Bhujangasana (cobra pose), and Savasana (corpse pose).[3] You need to adjust your working hours by reducing them or switching to another work (less difficult). You will benefit highly from an Occupational Therapist, a Yogi, and Massage Therapist for pain management.


  1. 3. Train yourself to have good sleep habits. This improves your quality of life. Have a specific time to sleep and don’t compromise with it. Don’t take alcohol or caffeinated substances just before sleeping as they may interfere with your sleep. Do not exercise close to bedtime; this may disrupt your sleep. Avoid midday naps as these may disturb your sleep pattern.


  1. 4. Getting good and adequate nutrition helps relieve your Fibromyalgia symptoms and generally improves your quality of life. Your diet should include whole foods. Be careful with the consumption of substances that can disrupt your sleep patterns like alcohol and caffeine. Let your meals be rich in Vitamins. Take a lot of fruit. If you are deficient in Vitamin D nutrients, you may benefit from taking Vitamin D supplements. Your Vitamin D intake may improve from the early morning sun. Food substances like Cod liver oil and beef liver are very rich in Vitamin D nutrients, Avoid the intake of too much food addictives and take sufficient water.


  1. 5. Engage in moderate physical exercises. This may be difficult due to your pain. You need to start with moderate exercises such as walking if exercising is difficult for you. Follow your doctor’s advice and prescribe exercises suitable for your pain and condition. Fibromyalgia patients also benefit from exercises like swimming and aerobic exercises.

People living with Fibromyalgia also benefit from therapies such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), support groups, and hydrotherapy.


  1. 6. Cognitive Behaviors Therapy is also called Talk Therapy. It deals with understanding how your behavior and thinking patterns influence pain and some other symptoms of yours. CBT and present-moment awareness help you to learn techniques that can reduce your symptoms and relieve your pain.


  1. 7. A support group is a group of other people living with Fibromyalgia. Belonging to one may uplift you and improve your quality of life. Together, you can achieve more and be dedicated to your lifestyle modifications.


  1. 8. Hydrotherapy involves the use of water to relieve pain. It can also be known as a water cure. It helps to soothe the pain. Some hydrotherapy equipment includes hot tubs, whirlpool spas, hydrotherapy tanks, and pools. Doctors or physiotherapists may offer advice on hydrotherapy techniques suitable for you. Hydrotherapy can be effective for Fibromyalgia.


  1. 9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine, also known as integrated medicine can also be effective for managing some of your Fibromyalgia symptoms. It is used by some medical practitioners. Examples include the use of acupuncture, massage, drinking green tea, and practicing Tai chi (also called shadowboxing).

Practicing all these non-drug treatments alongside drug treatments can be effective to relieve Fibromyalgia symptoms.

Fibromyalgia VA Rating

VA means Veterans Affairs. A VA Disability Rating is defined as a percentage that is usually assigned by The VA Rating Authorities to a Veteran with a disability, using a VA Disability Process. A 0% rating usually means your condition hardly affects you while a 100% rating means your condition has made you unable to work. A VA Disability Rating determines the quantity of VA Disability benefits provided the veterans suffer from a service-connected problem. Benefits may include monetary benefits and total medical care.

Does Fibromyalgia relate to service? Most causes of Fibromyalgia are unknown or idiopathic. However, some are related to emotional stress, physical trauma, infections, and psychological stress which may all be service-connected. The higher the VA Disability Rating, the higher the benefits for a veteran’s condition. Veterans with the same VA Disability Rating get the same amount except in cases that involve partners or children.

The VA Math is used to combine the Disability Ratings of all service-connected conditions a Veteran has. The total Disability Rating is utilized to ascertain the exact value of VA Disability Benefits the veteran will get. If your Fibromyalgia has worsened since you last applied for a VA rating, reapply and submit a new claim for a higher evaluation.

How is a Fibromyalgia VA Rating calculated?

Using the VA’s Schedule for Rating Disabilities (VASRD), the VA assigns percentages to conditions. The level of disability caused, treatment options, and extent of symptoms are the basis for the giving of rating rules by The VASRD.[4]

You may be required to provide medical records that show proof you have Fibromyalgia and proof that your Fibromyalgia is service-connected or other Statements in Support of the Claim. You may also be required to take a VA claim examination.

You are generally assigned a Fibromyalgia VA Rating based on the gravity or seriousness of your Fibromyalgia. Your Fibromyalgia must either be sustained or aggravated by your functioning or active military service. Your service duration will not be considered if the VA approves your eligibility. If you have more than one service-connected condition, the VA considers a total disability rating for you by using the VA Math to combine the VA ratings of all your conditions.

What are the Fibromyalgia VA Ratings?

The Code of Federal Regulations covers the VA disability ratings for Fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia VA Ratings can be 10%, 20%, or 40% based on the presence of symptoms requiring constant drugs (10%), the presence of symptoms that are present one-third of the time and increased by triggers (20%), or the presence of symptoms that do not cooperate with treatments (40%).[5]

Conclusion: Fibromyalgia Treatment

Fibromyalgia is said to highly impact one’s quality of life negatively. Fibromyalgia may last for a long period, possibly lifelong. However, the combination of both drug and non-drug wellness therapies has been proven to be effective in reduction in pain and improving the quality of life of persons with Fibromyalgia.

Despite the many symptoms related to it, it does not cause damage to a person’s internal organs, joints, or muscles. Fibromyalgia syndrome is also not generally considered a progressive condition except in a few cases (with triggers of Fibromyalgia flares such as emotional stress, physical stress, insufficient sleep, and hormonal imbalance). This means that the condition will not likely get worse as time goes on. The condition can improve.

Recent National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH)-funded studies have been investigating diverse ways that some Integrative and Complementary interventions work for Fibromyalgia.[6]


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Causes Of Joint Stiffness

causes of joint stiffness


Causes Of Joint Stiffness And Its Treatment

Joint stiffness occurs when there is difficulty in moving a particular joint or joints across the required number range of motions. Most times, joint stiffness does not occur isolated, it is often accompanied by painful joint symptoms or swelling of the affected joint. And depending on the specific etiology of the stiffness, such individuals can experience redness of the joint, tenderness on examination of the joint, numbness and at times, tingling sensation in the affected joint (1).

There are numerous causes of joint stiffness, it can occur as a result of a disease entity like cancer, or it can result from an inflammatory process or even an injury. Interestingly, injury to surrounding structures of a joint, such as the bursae can result in severe pain one of its manifestations can be stiffness of the affected joint, and also restricted movement (2).

joint stiffness hand

Most times, joint stiffness also occurs with age in quite a several patients, in which no specific injury or disease is causing it but just a result of overuse of the joint and surrounding muscles (3).

Possible Causes Of Joint Stiffness

The following are the causes of joint stiffness:

  1. 1. Rheumatoid arthritis

Generally, arthritis account for the highest percentage of the causes of joint stiffness in young adults and the elderly, studies have revealed that close to 15 million patients with arthritis are suffering from joint stiffness and pain (3).

Rheumatoid arthritis is a progressive chronic joint inflammatory disease that arises as a result of a disorder affecting the immune system causing the immune system to affect normal body cells, hence, called an autoimmune disorder.

Rheumatoid arthritis can manifest as joint stiffness hand, although it spares the distal interphalangeal joints, causing pain, stiffness, and nodule-like swelling on the affected joints, and when not corrected early, deformity occurs in long term.

Common clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis are pains in the joint, stiffness, and edema in the affected joint. Although rheumatoid arthritis has no definitive treatment, it has management plans that can help relieve the symptoms, and the earlier the treatment the better to prevent complications from arising (3).

  1. 2. Osteoarthritis

Joint stiffness knee most times occurs as a result of osteoarthritis, which usually occurs as a result of wear and tear of the joint when overuse of the joint occurs. In osteoarthritis, most times the affected structure is the cartilage, when this happens, it leads to bone friction and sometimes bone particles can fall off. This results in stiffness, pain, and swelling of the affected joint (4).

Joint stiffness knee

As the treatment for the condition becomes effective, the joint stiffness and other associated symptoms also reduce and get better. Depending on the severity of the symptoms, lifestyle management can help a lot, such as frequent exercises as medically prescribed in other to reduce the body weight being carried by the joint.

Medications to reduce pain and inflammation can also be used such as acetaminophen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and diclofenac. Surgery, such as joint replacement, is the last resort in chronic cases not responding to medical treatment (3).

  1. 3. Circadian rhythm

Studies have revealed that joint stiffness is severe in the morning compared to other times of the day. People with rheumatoid arthritis experience severe treatment in the morning after waking up from sleep which can go as far as thirty minutes in cases with poor prognosis. Studies have also revealed that patients who have inadequate sleep experience joint pain and weakness at night and very early in the morning as in the case of arthritis (5).

  1. 4. Obesity

Obesity is clinically described as an elevated BMI greater than 30kg/meter square, and when the BMI is greater than 40, it is called severe obesity. In obese patient, their joints are weakened due to the extra load of weight they are carrying at the time, they are also at risk of joint inflammation because fat adipocytes result in the secretion of certain proteins that predisposes the such patient to inflammation.

In obesity, joint stiffness knee joint disease is a common clinical manifestations. Obesity has also been identified as one of the components of metabolic syndrome that can affect tissues and organs of the body, all of which the bone is not an exclusion (5).

  1. 5. Lupus

Lupus, a popular short form of systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune inflammatory disease common in premenopausal women and commonly known for its effects on the body’s joints and muscles. Commonly lupus affects both small and large joints of the body which can produce joint stiffness fingers and painful joint symptoms

Common clinical manifestations of lupus when it affects joint stiffness and swelling, overall generalized body pain, and weakness which also affects the joints. Due to the complexity of the disease, lupus has no definitive treatment and complications often arise as the disease progresses (2).

  1. 6. Psoriatic arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis is a joint inflammation that is often associated with a psoriatic skin disorder, and in most cases, patients with psoriatic arthritis have a family history of the disease. Joint stiffness fingers commonly occur in this disorder and patients manifest pain and swelling, and the nails start to pit.

There is also associated stiffness of the joints in the affected joints of the body such as the hands, the finger, and the knee, and it could be symmetrical or asymmetrical (4).

  1. 7. Bursitis

Bursitis refers to inflammation of the bursae in the joints of the body. Bursaries are cushions in joints that contain fluids and their major function on the joints is to help prevent friction on the joints.

When bursitis occurs, there is swelling of the bursae and this often manifests in stiffness and pain in the joints. Although any joint of the body can be affected, it also commonly affects the large joints more.

Popularly affected joints are the elbow, shoulder, and hip joints. Joint stiffness knee that results in bursitis is due to the affectation of the knee joints. Other joints affected are the ankle and the big toes. Often time bursitis is not a chronic disease, it presents as acute and temporary, and doctors commonly advise patients to rest the affected joint for a week for healing to take place.

Physical exercises can also e done to prevent stiffness or to heal the joint stiffness if there is one already, but this is based on the recommendation by the physical therapist. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can also be used to relieve pain, and examples of such include ibuprofen, and diclofenac (2).

  1. 8. Gout

Unlike the other aetiologies of joint stiffness that are often progressive and chronic, gout is an acute disease of the joint which occurs as a result of excess accumulation of uric acid in the body, hyperuricemia. It may start during sleep causing a sudden stiffness of the joint in the morning, and it is characterized by the sudden pain and tenderness of the affected joint. In most cases, the big toe of the body is commonly affected by gout, and gout can affect any joint of the body

Some studies explain that a gout is a form of arthritis and that it has a sexual predilection for men more than women, especially post-menopausal women. Unlike in lupus where it has no definitive treatment, joint stiffness in gout is treatable with the use of drug therapy, although recurrence is also possible (2).

  1. 9. Bone cancer

Although it is unlikely, this can occasionally result in joint discomfort and stiffness. Joint pain and bone pain are potential side effects of bone malignancy. The most common manifestation of a bone malignancy is the swelling around the bone, and not all patients present with pain, which explains why the malignancy may have become advanced before its diagnosis.

Bone cancer is usually treatable but the treatment approach is often dependent on the cancer staging, the size and the location of the tumor, and of course, the type of cancer is also important in determining the management therapy. Common bone malignancy treatments include the use of radiotherapy, surgery, and the use of chemotherapy as well.

Recently, immunotherapy has been indicated and this includes the use of managing drugs such as pembrolizumab, to stimulate the action of the immune system against the cancer cells (2).

  1. 10. Fibromyalgia

Joint and muscle discomfort, as well as issues with sleep, emotions, and cognition, are all symptoms of this chronic illness. According to researchers, the brain amplifies natural pain impulses. They don’t understand what causes it, but disease, surgery, or periods of extreme stress frequently precede it. However, it doesn’t harm the affected joints the way osteoarthritis does. Joint stiffness knee and painful joint symptoms are manifestations of fibromyalgia (4).

  1. 11. Diet

Consuming dairy and meat products may contribute to the development of diseases like gout or osteoarthritis, which can cause joint stiffness. Humans are possibly more prone to joint stiffness if they consume greater amounts of these meals and fewer organic diets. According to research, adopting a vegetarian or Diet plan may aid with stiffness reduction. It may be advantageous to consume more fiber, cereals, and fruits. Others are vegetables, healthy fats, and herbs (5).

  1. 12. Sleeping position

How individuals sleep during the night is frequently a factor in joint stiffness. Whenever a patient does not sleep with a good neck position and their spine aligned, they may awaken experiencing joint stiffness or soreness. For individuals who are already experiencing joint pain or stiffness in certain parts of their body, it is normally best advised if they avoid sleeping on the same body side when they go to bed at night (4).

  1. 13. Injury to the joints

Patients who suffer from ligament injuries frequently feel excruciating agony. The femur, tibia, and fibula are the three bones that are connected by ligaments in a joint. They contribute to the knee joint’s stability.

The anterior, posterior, and medial cruciate ligaments, which are the three ligaments in the knee, are frequently injured in sports-related injuries. Ligamentous injuries can also occur in car accidents with strong forces.

The following characteristic is frequently seen in patients who have ligament injuries:

  • – Joint pain is always really severe.
  • – Painful joint symptoms causing discomfort when moving.
  • – There is a crepitus-like noise inside the building.
  • – Movement instability or difficulty.
  • – Joint edema in the afflicted area.
  • – The inside of the joint, such as the knee, is sore, producing joint stiffness knee (6).


  1. 14. Fracture

Joint fractures happen when any of the bony parts of the joint experience a discontinuity, and this can make the damaged joint stiff and immobile.

After the fracture has been fixed or healed, stiffness often persists, and in some cases, physical treatment is necessary to relieve it.

Depending on the joint site affected, the stiffness of the joint can occur in different sites of the body, for example, joint stiffness hand will occur in a fracture to the bones of the hands, joint stiffness knee will occur in a knee fracture, and they all have their associated painful joint symptoms.

Therefore, it is always recommended for patients recuperating from fractures to keep all of their scheduled physiotherapy appointments to aid with the stiffness and accompanying swelling.

Treatment For Joint Pain And Stiffness

Before thinking of what to use to relieve joint stiffness, it is best to see a doctor to determine the specific cause of the stiffness and to treat it accordingly. The doctor may diagnose the etiology and recommend the appropriate treatment plan, such as physical therapy that may tackle the cause. The following are the available treatment options for joint stiffness:

  1. A. Medications: Medications such as over-the-counter pain relievers can be used especially when there are associated pains, and the doctor can also prescribe specific NSAIDs depending on the severity of the pain.
  2. B. Cold or hot compress: Following the RICE principle, which requires that patient should rest the affected limb, apply ice, compression, and elevation, when cold compress is applied, it helps to reduce the edema around the stiff joints while hot compress causes relaxation of the muscles and soft tissues.
  3. C. Steroids: Depending on the severity of the joint issue causing the stiffness, the doctor can also prescribe steroids to help with inflammation, but this should be taken with caution because of the possible side effects.
  4. D. Exercise: When necessary, exercise will be prescribed at the right time by the doctor or the physical therapist as exercise can also help to relieve stiffness.
  5. E. Supplements: The use of supplements such as glucosamine and fish oil has been proven to help with joint stiffness (7).



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